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Gcse macbeth essay

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Macbeth exams AQA Lit GCSE by josephs15 - Teaching Resources

brian m folk resume Chapter four: Justin's answer and what followed. Tears were still rolling down Justin's face. Gcse Essay! Brian saw this. Cover Letter! He leaned in and gave Justin a long, passionate kiss, while raising him up at gcse macbeth essay, the same time. Their lips parted and Brian said, I'm finished. Is there anything you want to say? Justin replied, After that long, but in a good way, declaration of public and citizenship statewide essay, love, I'll make mine short and sweet. I Love You Brian Kinney, more than you will ever know. He put his arms around Brian's waist and put his head on macbeth essay Brian's chest. He didn't care that he couldn't stop crying like a little fag.

These were tears of joy and he wouldn't mind if they never stopped. Brian wrapped his arms around Justin and held him tight, relaxing in our second essay the thought that he had shared everything with his one true love. He didn't mind saying it any more. Essay! I love you too, more than I ever thought I could love another person other than my son. Brian… Justin whispered as he lifted his head to look in Brian in the eyes, now noticing that his cheeks were streaked with tears as well. I want you to take me to bed and just hold me until we fall asleep, and then in an essay the morning I want you to make sweet, sweet love to me. There will be no more fucking for gcse macbeth us.

Brian picked Justin up and carried him to the bedroom. He put him on the bed and removed both of their clothes. They crawled under the christmas traditions, covers and gcse essay, just held each other all night long. The next morning when Brian awakes, he lays there watching Justin as he sleeps. After a few minutes he begins to stroke Justin's hair back. He kisses him on the forehead, then the cheek, and finally on christmas traditions essay the lips. Justin wakes up, slightly aroused, and sees Brian coming in for another kiss.

This time their lips meet each other. Shots of electricity shoot through both of them. Justin asked, What was that for? I'm just doing what was asked of me, making slow, sweet and tender love to the man of my dreams, for the first time, of the rest of our lives. Justin lets out a long accepting sigh, and gcse macbeth, rolls over on cover for lab technician his stomach. Gcse! Brian keeps kissing Justin's neck as he straddles on top of him. He applies some lube and slowly enters him. Justin realizes that something feels different. Brian, you didn't put on a condom.? He is quoting an essay mla format half asking, half telling. You said you wanted me to make love to you.

I haven't had sex with another man for at least three months. I've been tested regularly, just a few days ago in fact, and I'm still negative. But you told me to never go bareback. I wanted you to macbeth always be safe and education and citizenship statewide essay contest, healthy. You are.

Now I want you to macbeth essay be the public and citizenship statewide 2012, only man I have ever cum inside of. I want you to know that feeling, so you will never want anyone but me. I don't think you ever have to gcse worry about public statewide contest 2012, that. As long as you keep making love to me and essay, only me, I'll never leave again. With that he reached his arm back and put his hand on traditions essay Brian's thigh, signaling that it was okay to continue.

This went on for quite some time. It was the most intimate experience either of them had ever had. Gcse! This was the closest they had ever been. When Brian finally let out that last soft moan and came, Justin told him to stay inside. Quoting An Essay Mla Format! The two of them rolled on their sides. Brian stayed inside him and held him close. Justin turned his head for a kiss and Brian obliged.

Brian saw the tears again. Are you okay? Am I hurting you? No, never, I'm just the happiest I've ever been in my entire life. If I could keep you inside me forever, I would. Well, at some point we are going to have to get up and gcse essay, start planning this wedding. Don't worry. It's all in my wedding book. I've got the best way to, perfect wedding all planned out, complete with illustrations.

I guess I should have expected nothing less. Gcse Macbeth! Before that though, I want you to let me throw you the most extravagant engagement party you have ever seen. I'll need about a month, so how does the cover, 17th sound? That's fine by me, but you really don't have to do this. Gcse Macbeth Essay! Yeah, I do. I want the whole world, or at least all of way to a essay, Liberty Ave. to know that I'm officially off the market and macbeth, that you are too. I'll be sure to invite Brandon so everyone has someone to f*ck in the coat room. Brian finally withdrew himself from Justin.

He smacked Justin's ass and said, Now get up and home essay, make me a list of everyone you want invited to the party. Hell, we can kill two birds with one stone and use this as the gcse essay, guest list for our wedding too. Best Way To! Now hurry up, MY sunshine, because the sooner you finish that list, the sooner I can resume making love to you. In that case, I better hurry. I have two months' worth of pent up sexual frustration that only you can take care of. Don't you worry. I'll be taking care of it and you for the rest of my life. Oh Brian, you always know just what to say. Gcse Macbeth Essay! They got out of bed, threw on some clothes and public essay 2012, went into the living room. I just have a very important meeting to attend and then I'll be right back to take you in the shower, the bedroom, the kitchen, and anywhere else I can think of. Now there's the old Brian shining through.

I was hoping he wasn't completely gone. Old and gcse macbeth, new, we're one in our second the same. Besides, I said I was giving up other men. I don't believe I ever mentioned giving up any sex. You'll just have more duties to fulfill in essay your roll as my doting wife. I'm pretty sure it's even in the vows.

It's right after sickness and health. Something about wherever and whenever he wants it. That must be something new they added in. I'll have to look it up and plan templates canada, memorize it. Macbeth Essay! If you don't mind, I'd also like to write my own vows, and after everything you said last night, I would think you would be able to do the same. I'm sure I can come up with a few more words to express my undying love for my eternal Sunshine. Our Second Essay! Now go take a shower, because you smell like New York. If I'm not back by the time you finish the macbeth essay, guest list, you can start working on your vows. Assistant! Don't you want to join me?

Yes, but I really have to get to this meeting. Macbeth Essay! I've got to keep the clients happy so we have lots of money for a lavish wedding. GO! I'm going to grab some juice to go. As soon as Justin hit the bathroom, Brian went straight to his knapsack and crossed his fingers. He opened it up, pushed through a few things and found it, a small journal with Justin's handwriting on it. It read, Brian and Justin's perfect wedding. He grabbed it, rushed to the computer and scanned/printed every page. Justin must have had some idea of what would happen between them, to still be hanging on to this journal.

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Macbeth exams AQA Lit GCSE by josephs15 - Teaching Resources

Movie Essay On Black Swan Essays and gcse essay, Research Papers. many individuals will bring out their “dark side”. Some are pushed to their limits and in letter for lab technician order to perfect themselves and to please others, they would do . things that is benefit to them. In this essay , I will be discussing Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical perspective and gcse macbeth essay, analyze it to the movie Black Swan . Best Conclude A Essay. Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical perspective of social interaction suggests that a person’s identity will change overtime based on interaction with others. It proposes that a person’s identity is gcse, not. Erving Goffman , Girl , Impression management 1684 Words | 5 Pages. 10/27/12 Black Swan Black Swan is public education and citizenship statewide essay contest, a compelling and distinctive movie about a . woman who is trying to macbeth essay get in touch with her dark side.

Nina Sayers, the main character, has been chosen for business plan, the role of the essay Swan Queen, yet her innocence refuses to develop a relaxed mind throughout the film. Confusing her is the anxiety, hallucinations, and visions, which she has to school home essay deal with in gcse essay order to achieve the state of “perfection” she desires, as she progresses in evolving her role as the Black Swan . In this. Alter ego , Darren Aronofsky , Mila Kunis 1247 Words | 4 Pages. Mass Communication – Assignment – BLACK SWAN Casts Release Date: December 3, 2010 (Limited) On DVD: March 29, 2011 Genre: . Suspense, Drama Director: Darren Aronofsky Writer: Mark Heyman, John McLaughlin Cast: Natalie Portman, Mila Kunis, Vincent Cassel, Winona Ryder, Barbara Hershey, Sebastian Stan, Kristina Anapau Studio: Fox Searchlight Pictures Official site: blackswan2010.com Running Time: 103 minutes MPAA Rating: Rated R for strong sexual content, disturbing violent images, language and some. Black Swan , Darren Aronofsky , Michael Powell 1686 Words | 5 Pages. Destiny palmer Professor Vicki Schwab 10/26/2012 English 101 Evaluation Essay The Black Swan Evaluation . Essay Perfection is a dream chased by public education and citizenship, many, but only a few ever achieve it. Gcse Macbeth Essay. More often than not, reaching that level of flawlessness requires great sacrifice. “The Black Swan ”, directed by Darren Aronfsky, is a captivating psychological thriller set in the world of New York City ballet. The Movie received high ratings and Natalie Portman, who played the quoting mla format lead role of Nina, received praise. Academy Award , Academy Award for gcse macbeth, Best Picture , Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress 1398 Words | 4 Pages. ? Black Swan / Yellow Wallpaper Cindy Marangos English 204 Abstract The paper below compares the short story of . The Yellow Wallpaper and the film The Black Swan . Quoting An Essay Mla Format. It shows similarities between the two main characters in each work.

In “The Yellow Wallpaper” we meet a woman who is trying to be a good wife and in gcse macbeth Black Swan we meet a woman who is striving for excellence. In the essay below I compare the two characters in detail showing their similarities. Essay. The women in both stories “lock”. 20th Century Fox , Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Silas Weir Mitchell 786 Words | 5 Pages. Psychological Analysis of Black Swan. Abstract The movie ' Black Swan ’ follows the story of Nina, a ballerina in macbeth a New York City ballet company whose . life is completely consumed with dance. She lives with her retired ballerina mother Erica, who lives vicariously through Nina and zealously supports her daughter’s professional ambition. Nina is selected by the artistic director, Thomas Leroy, as prima ballerina for the opening production of the new season, Swan Lake. Nina has competition in a new dancer, Lily, who impresses Leroy as well. Ballet , Dance , Dream 2825 Words | 7 Pages. ?Ayana Gentles Period 7 Mr.

Blom September 26,2014 Black Swan Green There are so many things in life that people wish . they could change, but that wouldn’t solve anything. Business Plan. Life is a rollercoaster, you never know what to expect or how you will react to gcse macbeth essay what’s in statewide essay contest store. In the book, Black Swan Green by David Mitchell, Jason Taylor is essay, a teenager who goes through many and deals with many obstacles that he wish he could change in his life. Public Statewide Contest. He deals with bullying, his case of stammering, trying. 2007 singles , Cluttering , Lebanon, Tennessee 1109 Words | 2 Pages. Sarah Risner Dr. Foley Cinema 19 November 2012 Black Swan “ Black Swan ” is a movie . with a dark transformation of Nina the white swan metamorphosing herself into the black swan , with symbolism and gcse, psychosis playing well within the movie . Most of this movie plays into the world the ballerina, and school essay, exposes some of the hidden motives of this world. The other world this movie plays into is the world of essay, someone with psychosis, and the mysteries that follow between both worlds.

It seems the ballerina. Darren Aronofsky , Film , Movie theater 1224 Words | 3 Pages. It all started with the desire of a ballerina to get the main role in their recital “ Swan Lake”, in which the quoting chosen ballerina would portray . not only the gcse white swan but the black swan as well. However, this person who aspire to get the part, lack the characteristics that the black swan possesses, that may be the cause of all the strange things that is happening to her, Nina Sayers, the protagonist of the movie . Nina who is on her late 20’s yet lives with her mother, who I assume where Nina gets. Carl Jung , Personality psychology , Protagonist 1212 Words | 5 Pages. Black Swan : A Disorienting, Convoluted Whirlwind of Identity, Sexuality, and Psychological Stability “We all know the story. . Virginal girl, pure and sweet, trapped in the body of a swan . She desires freedom but only true love can break the spell. Her wish is nearly granted in the form of a prince, but before he can declare his love her lustful twin, the black swan , tricks and seduces him.

Devastated the white swan leaps off of a cliff, killing herself, and, in death, finds freedom” ( Black Swan ). Black Swan , Darren Aronofsky , Mila Kunis 1078 Words | 3 Pages. narrative of Swan Lake? Odette is a beautiful princess who has been cursed by an evil sorcerer, Von Rothbart. She’s transform into traditions, a sawn by . day, and at night she gets back her human form. The only way for the spell to be broken is by the power of eternal love between Odette and a young man who will remain faithful to her, for if the essay vow of eternal love is broken, she will remain a swan forever. One day the Prince Siegfried was hunting in a lake, when sees Odette transform from her swan form into. Antagonist , Character , Emotional insecurity 1512 Words | 5 Pages.

Aronofsky’s “ Black Swan ” and I must say it was absolutely outstanding if he was going in the direction of traditions, a film about a girl . Macbeth. reaching needed freedom through maturity. He grasped the main idea of a girl freeing herself and christmas traditions, wrapped it inside of gcse, a well-known play, “ Swan Lake” by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. “ Swan Lake” is a ballet in which a princess is turned into the White Swan and can only be turned back if a man swears eternal fidelity to her. In the ballet, she is betrayed by the Black Swan , the evil. Ballet , Darren Aronofsky , Mila Kunis 1153 Words | 3 Pages. The Psycological Theory Behind The Black Swan Darren Aronofsky’s 2010 movie “ Black Swan ” I believe there are many different theories that could explain what is . behind the bazaar psychological thriller. School Our Second. Some people’s theories are behind the mother-daughter relationship which would in Psychological terms deal with attachment. There are also theories behind eating disorders and gcse essay, stress which could cause mental disorders and personality disorders.

Are mental illnesses and personality disorders the same? Watching the movie with different theories. Abnormal psychology , Borderline personality disorder , Dissociative identity disorder 1122 Words | 3 Pages. to the theory developed by education and citizenship statewide essay, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the gcse essay attack on the World Trade Center, can be categorized as a Black Swan event . (Bicknell, 2010). An event must possess the following qualities to be considered a Black Swan . It must have “low predictability, high consequences, and after the first recorded instance of the event, it is business canada, rationalized by hindsight (Taleb, 2008).” Black Swan events refer only to unforeseen events that are large in size and affect history. Taleb states that “computers. Black swan theory , Enterprise risk management , Fooled by Randomness 706 Words | 3 Pages.

Belonging- Black Swan Romulus My Father. Aronofsky’s film ‘ Black Swan ’. Gcse Macbeth Essay. Good morning teacher and classmates. The text ‘ Black Swan ’ is christmas traditions essay, a . film directed by gcse macbeth essay, Darren Aronofsky. Business Plan Templates Canada. It is about a ballerina, Nina, who is elected for the main role in the classic ballet performance Swan Lake. She must play both the white and black swan but can only dance the white. She strives to belong in the position as the black swan and succeed in her role, but in doing so she spirals into insanity.

My collage of essay, pictures from the movie Black Swan , defines the best way to conclude importance. Alice in Wonderland , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , Darren Aronofsky 1479 Words | 4 Pages. My Black Swan Analysis The magnificent obsession can be one of two things. It can be a thing of gcse macbeth, beauty, a gifted ballet . dancer gracefully contorting their body to essay a harmonious pace. Gcse. But it can also be a thing of darkness, a face of white like Bergman's vision of Death with red, piercing eyes included. Director Darren Aronofsky is no stranger to telling tales of obsession. In fact, most of his films deal with the dueling sides of that fiery driven coin. With Black Swan , his latest film.

Black Swan , Clint Mansell , Darren Aronofsky 1034 Words | 3 Pages. 1. WHAT IS A BLACK SWAN EVENT? It is clear that risk management is best way to a essay, a highly important element in management today as it . Essay. identifies and quoting mla format, assesses risks and gcse essay, then applies resources to minimize (or maximize) and monitor the probability and impact of way to, unfortunate events (or opportunities). Gcse Macbeth. This way, companies are able to cope with a lot of risky situations by predicting them and by setting aside the an essay mla format right resources to gcse handle them. However not all risks and events can be predicted and these can have a. Black swan theory , Blowout preventer , Nassim Nicholas Taleb 2336 Words | 7 Pages. Borderline Personality Disorder The Black Swan is a psycho thriller film that narrates the demise of a young talented . twenty-some year old ballerina named Nina Sayers. Christmas. The story begins with the main character Nina anticipating her lead role as the Swan Queen in the upcoming new production of Swan Lake. This new version of Swan Lake as presented by the artistic director, Thomas Leroy, tells the story of gcse macbeth, a virginal girl that is trapped in the body of a White Swan . The White Swan desires to be free but only.

Abnormal psychology , Avoidant personality disorder , Behaviorism 1700 Words | 5 Pages. Auteur Theory : Darren Aronofsky (Black Swan) visuals. And Citizenship Essay. Moving on to the discussion of the topic at hand, can the director of macbeth essay, Black Swan , Darren Aronofsky be considered as . an a essay, auteur? Black Swan is his fifth film as a director. Essay. All of his films share a similar theme. They all deal with an home essay, addiction in some form, the protagonist is always the one addicted.

The movie shows the protagonist realizing his/her addiction, and there by degrading their personal life. ‘ Black Swan ’ and ‘The Wrestler’, share a single minded professionalism in the pursuit of. Alfred Hitchcock , Auteur theory , Clint Mansell 1875 Words | 5 Pages. The facts and essay, details about movie theatres compared to home theatres. The facts and details about movie theatres that are getting . out of the house, the movie theatre experience, and seen the newest movie out to letter for lab technician assistant date compared to gcse macbeth essay the facts and school our second home, details about home theatres that are staying in, no cost for anything, and no noisy children. Getting out gcse of the house to drive to a movie is school home essay, always an excited trip. Driving from your house to gcse the theatre is business plan templates, a trip in it is on. Essay. Maybe picking up some snacks.

2008 singles , Film , Home cinema 1509 Words | 4 Pages. ?The timeless Swan Lake is our second home, today prized as one of the world’s greatest and most renowned classical ballets to ever exist. For over one hundred . years Swan Lake has been performed, adapted and rewritten innumerable times to macbeth essay enthrall a wide range of audiences all across the world. For Lab Technician Assistant. Whilst the foundation of how Swan Lake began and came to be is gcse macbeth, still, to some extent, unknown, it is widely believed that the production was originally choreographed by Julius Reisinger with the accompaniment of celebrated. Australian Ballet School , Ballet , Ballet company 1378 Words | 5 Pages. Reaction Paper on the film, “ Black Swan ” Anonymous The movie , Black Swan , is about . Nina, a ballerina whose life is consumed with dance. At the beginning of the assistant film, the gcse essay company where she belongs to quoting an essay mla format is preparing to open the season with Swan Lake. Like any other ballet dances, Swan Lake has a story - it is about a pure and sweet girl trapped in a swan’s body and macbeth, the only way to break the spell is true love.

Nina lands the quoting role of the macbeth essay Swan Queen – but, the plan canada role of the Swan Queen requires a dancer. Dance 471 Words | 2 Pages. CRITICAL ESSAY ON CRASH The film Crash written and directed by Paul Haggis was taken place in macbeth Los Angeles. This movie . Christmas Traditions. illustrates how discrimination and macbeth, prejudice has affected our everyday lives, due to the misconceptions we have of each other. All the characters in this movie are either victims of traditions, prejudice and discrimination or are guilty of it. To help us give more understanding about this movie I am comparing the movie Crash to Joseph Healey textbook, Race, Ethnicity, Gender Class. In. Discrimination , Gun , Osama bin Laden 1372 Words | 4 Pages. ? BLACK SWAN I. CHARACTERS: Natalie Portman as Nina Sayers (The Swan Queen): A young perfectionist ballet . dancer who wants to take the role of the macbeth Swan Queen. Quoting An Essay Mla Format. She was pressured by her retired ballerina mother on pursuing her dream.

Mila Kunis as Lily (The Black Swan ): A new ballerina who personify the Black Swan flawlessly. She is also Nina’s understudy. Vincent Cassel as Thomas Leroy: The director, a control freak, a true artist using sexuality to direct his dancers. Macbeth. Barbara Hershey as Erica. American film actors , Ballet , Ballet company 755 Words | 2 Pages. own, more down-to-earth vision of Mafia in best 1973 MEAN STREETS, movie that dealt with lower echelons of macbeth, organized crime. Unfortunately for . Scorsese, his film was unspectacular and too artsy to compete with Coppola's influence on Mafia portrayals in the movies. Seventeen years later Scorsese returned to letter technician mean streets of gcse, New York with another film that dealt with darker side of mla format, American organized crime. Gcse Macbeth Essay. This film was GOODFELLAS, epic black comedy which is today considered as one of the best and most influential. Francis Ford Coppola , Goodfellas , Harvey Keitel 1110 Words | 5 Pages.

the move Black Swan Nina is an best way to conclude a essay, apprising ballerina auditioning for the new performance of Swan Lake. She appears to . be under extreme stress from her mother to become a great performer. Gcse. She first shows signs of school home, self-mutilation through the form of starching wounds into her flesh, this problem continues to progress through-out the move. She first begins seeing hallucinations in the form in nonexistent people figures. Nina is being pushed by gcse essay, her director to not only become a perfect white swan but to transition. Black Swan , Black swan theory , Delusion 576 Words | 2 Pages. adaption of the Broadway musical “Chicago” took place in the mid-twenties, directed by Rob Marshall. This movie is geared toward the people who . enjoy musicals and those who are Broadway fanatics. It’s a comedy, a crime, and a musical. This movie is quoting an essay, definitely meant for adults of a mature stature. It’s full of violence, vulgar language and sex.

Each musical number that was performed throughout the gcse macbeth movie conveyed strong emotionally depth. For example, The Cell Block Tango, each murderess on the row told. Broadway theatre , Catherine Zeta-Jones , Chicago 1186 Words | 3 Pages. feeling the way the music is sounding, keeps your heart pounding throughout the movie . Road to cover letter for lab technician Perdition had more of a focus on essay the editing and . the suspense of the plot to keep you engaged. Essay. The ability to keep the movie interesting throughout is an easy task in both films, given their plot. Gcse. It is the extensive attention to detail in Apocalypse now that makes it one of the best movies ever made, but it is also the quoting an essay mla format power the movie has to make every viewer relate to the stresses that Martin Sheen is dealing. Apocalypse Now , Benjamin L. Willard , Film 1050 Words | 3 Pages. …..And Your Name Is Jonah In the movie , And Your Name Is Jonah (1979), there is a family that is going through some tough times. Jenny . and Danny Corelli (Jonah’s parents) are seen walking into an institution to pick up their son, Jonah.

There had been some confusion on the diagnosis; it appears that Jonah was diagnosed as mentally retarded. Jenny kept questioning and questioning if the new diagnosis was in fact correct, and was just dumbfounded. Gcse. They could not believe that Jonah had been. Audiogram , Audiology , Cochlear implant 1740 Words | 4 Pages. ? Lost Cause? Not in Lincoln The movie Lincoln, directed by Steven Spielberg, is a good representation of Civil War . Mla Format. history with major emphasis on gcse emancipation and the Thirteenth Amendment. One thing to notice is quoting an essay, that this recent movie does not jump onto the Confederate Lost Cause bandwagon like many of the older movies I saw in the past. It shows that the Lost Cause view of the Civil War is beginning to fade away in modern day era but also shows the influences of present day. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 943 Words | 3 Pages. like I could really connect to each essay . Gcse Macbeth. By finding common characteristics within each essay , it helped me write my paper . efficiently.

Although writing this was not that enjoyable, I found it easy because each topic was interesting and easy to write about. In my synthesis, I am arguing that the media plays a huge role in business canada each essay , portraying either unfeminist character on gcse essay TV or showing poor people as happy and our second home essay, having a good self-esteem level. I feel as if my essay has good structure to essay it, and I. Bella Swan , Breaking Dawn , Eclipse 1090 Words | 3 Pages. disorder characterized by poor thought processes and poor emotional responsiveness. It is said to mainly affect cognition, but someone with this disorder . will also have problems with emotion and behavior. In the movie “Of Two Minds”, the cover letter for lab technician character Elizabeth has schizophrenia. This movie portrayed the trials and gcse essay, emotional hardships that a person with schizophrenia has to canada go through on a daily basis.

It also shows the social problems and family problems that are commonly found with someone struggling. Delusional disorder , Dissociative identity disorder , Family therapy 1281 Words | 4 Pages. Black Swan Green / Letter to a Poet. ? Through reading excerpts from Letters to a Young Poet by Rainer Maria Rilke and Black Swan Green by David Mitchell, Rilke’s . counsel to the young poet applies greatly to the main character in David Mitchell’s story, Jason Taylor. Gcse Macbeth Essay. Both of the an essay works are to poets from someone who is giving advice, however, Jason Taylor does not seek advice, while the young poet does. Gcse Macbeth. The advice given to the poets is similar and helpful to business canada their cause. In Rilke’s letter to the young poet, Rilke tells the poet that. Letters to a Young Poet , Linguistics , Literature 977 Words | 3 Pages. disconnection. This idea can be explored through a selection of famous poems written by Emily Dickinson in the 1800’s namely, “The saddest noise, the . sweetest noise”, “This is my letter to the world and “ I was hungry all the years”.

The 2010 film Black Swan , directed by Darren Aronofksy displays masterful use of film techniques to emphasize and illustrate the themes of good versus Evil, Seeking Perfection and Nature versus Nurture throughout the film. Belonging to oneself is often the hardest challenge. Conflict between good and evil , Darren Aronofsky , Emily Dickinson 1357 Words | 4 Pages. Historical Analysis of “ Black Robe” The movie “ Black Robe” was very realistic in gcse portraying themes that . Public Education Essay. paralleled with the lives of the aboriginal people living in North America at essay that time. Some of the themes that were similar in both portrayals of aboriginal life the primary document “The French Presence in Huronia: the structure of Franco-Huron relations in the first half of the 17th century” by Bruce G. Trigger and another primary document called “The Meeting of and citizenship statewide essay contest 2012, Two Worlds - Who Benefited. Archive , Historiography , Primary source 1028 Words | 3 Pages. ?HURICANE ESSAY Discuss the ways in which the director of gcse macbeth essay, your set text develops the main character in this movie to convey the . messages of this film. The film Hurricane by Canadian Norman Jewison exposes the corrupt justice system in quoting an essay mla format America during the 60s. Through his carefully structured effective cinematic techniques, camera work, elements of design, historical references and symbolisation Jewison illuminates the text to convey to the audience specific viewpoints, of how Rubin Hurricane Carter.

Antagonist , Flag of the United States , High-angle shot 926 Words | 3 Pages. evident in the movie “Crash” directed by Paul Haggis, that people misconceive others due to judgement on gcse their physical traits. Throughout the . movie , the characters living in Los Angeles face the public and citizenship statewide essay challenges of essay, fitting in a town populated by people of different colours. The offenders are the “white” people whereas the victims are everyone else. The presence of racism is the main cause of quoting an essay mla format, every conflict that occurs in the movie . The majority of the racism involved in the movie is towards the negro.

Black people , Discrimination , Race 1297 Words | 4 Pages. The Black Swan Before the discovery of macbeth, Australia, all the world had never seen a black swan . before. An impossible accomplishment in someones life before this time was referred to as “ a black swan .” The mere sight of one black swan after the discovery of Australia negated the thousands of years of our second, sightings of gcse, white swans and thinking they were the only species of swan . This generalization that was put on the term “ black swan ” before the an essay mla format british occupation of gcse macbeth, Australia is school home, just an example of. Black Swan , Black swan theory , Ludic fallacy 579 Words | 2 Pages. The new film Black Swan , directed by macbeth essay, Darren Aronofsky and starring Natalie Portman, is a mesmerizing tale of a young woman's . descent into fear and paranoia. Portman plays Nina, a ballet dancer with a major company in New York City. As a sheltered good girl, Nina is naturally suited to the pure and intricate White Swan role in Swan Lake.

But that same leading part also requires her to portray the for lab technician seductive and malicious Black Swan . To nab the all-important spot, Nina must draw from gcse, the. Ballet , Black Swan , Darren Aronofsky 458 Words | 2 Pages. PS101 Black Swan The movie Black Swan has many traits of psychological . disorders. Some of the disorders that are displayed through out the movie are delusional disorder, schizophrenia, and depression. Delusional disorder is displayed by severe delusions of quoting an essay, jealousy and persecution. Schizophrenia is displayed by delusions, and hallucinations split between though and emotion. Depression is sadness, hopelessness, and a state of gcse macbeth, despondency. Nina Sayers shows signs of delusional disorder. Abnormal psychology , Delusional disorder , Mental disorder 600 Words | 2 Pages. Black rock essay Introduction: Steven vidler, director of Blackrock use a number of cinematic techniques to the theme of our second, risk. . Teenagers are notorious for risk tasking behaviour which can have devastating consequence for the future.

Blackrock is a 1997 film tells the story of Jared, a teenage boy who witness a rape and murder at a teen party, and must risk his social status (and safety) by coming forward. Vidler explores the theme of risk using film techhiguc such as montage, costuming, dialog. Adolescence , Decision theory , Finance 718 Words | 3 Pages. Film Analysis of Black Swan The movie Black Swan revolves around Nina Sayers, an . Gcse Macbeth. aspiring ballerina. Although talented, she is our second home, very reserved and others would describe her as “shy, frigid little girl”.

She longs for the lead role in a theatre production of “ Swan Lake”, and as fate would have it, she gets cast to dance both the gcse white and black swan . Business Templates Canada. These are two immensely different characters. Her innocent, almost child-like personality makes her a perfect white swan . However, she has trouble. Delusional disorder , Dissociation , Dissociative identity disorder 598 Words | 2 Pages. “This is SPARTA!” A wolf… large, black , with eyes aglow as if smoldering coals, lurking in gcse essay the shadows of the snowy, desolate terrain. A . small boy… frail to the eye, but skilled in his combat, watching the wolf and how it looks at him thirsting for blood. If the essay boy wishes to return to his people he must utilize all the skills he has learned up into this point. Essay. To come back to his people of Sparta as a man is his only best wish. Gcse. He is scarcely dressed, probably cold and tired, but expressions of emotion. 300 , Battle of Thermopylae , Ephialtes of Trachis 968 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Fat Black Woman Composes a Poem In order to understand the underlying messages that Grace Nichols was trying to send out through her . writing, one must understand the context of “The fat black woman composes a poem” as well as the context of the entire book. Templates. The first and strongest context is racial context in the form of post-colonial racism in the United Kingdom (where she was residing at the time).

Throughout the book, Nichols shows what it was like to gcse essay be a minority at the time and how. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 788 Words | 2 Pages. Burn Crash the school home essay movie illustrates many examples of ignorance, bias views, discrimination, racism and assumptions. This movie . is centered on the above ideas. During the movie every character at some point is gcse macbeth essay, guilty of bias views, discrimination, or assumptions. This is public education essay contest 2012, due to the different ethnicities and backgrounds of the characters.

Towards the macbeth essay end of the cover letter movies all the characters begin to realize that some of gcse macbeth, their voiced beliefs and actions may be wrong. Home. Throughout the movie we will see the. Automobile , Bias , Crash 921 Words | 3 Pages. BLACK SWAN Don't know what it is about films like this one. Gcse Macbeth Essay. They drain you completely while making you wonder about the . pointlessness of perfection. Black Swan is about ballerina Nina Sayer (Portman) who lands the business role of the Swan Queen in a production of the Tchaikovsky classic. Normally, this should have been a happy occasion but with a mother who pushes her all the time, she strives to macbeth essay get picked in lead roles only to see roles go to lesser talents. Years of school our second, failure to get. Black Swan , Darren Aronofsky , Life imitating art 519 Words | 2 Pages. ? The patriot Part 1: Introduction Because I know I’m not writing this essay for someone who hasn’t seen the . movie , I’m not going to describe every single second in essay this summary, just the most important parts.

The movie is about the way to conclude historical event: the macbeth essay American Revolutionary War. The main character, Benjamin Martin, whom I like to public education essay contest 2012 call Martin rather than Benjamin and so I will, has fought in the French – Indian war, also known as the macbeth Seven Years’ war or the War. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Banastre Tarleton 2583 Words | 6 Pages. ?Humanities – Black Death ( Essay ) “It is not the strongest or the way to most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage . change.” ? Charles Darwin. Gcse Macbeth Essay. The immediate pains of the Black Death were worth the long-term gains. Without this catastrophic event we may never have experienced the freedoms we enjoy today. Because of the Black Death, people became less restricted by the rules that the church and the feudal system enforced.

This allowed the school our second people freedom and choice. Also, without the. Black Death , Bubonic plague , Medieval demography 1091 Words | 2 Pages. ? Thomas is gcse essay, not the only character that feels as though he doesn’t fit in. Do you agree? INTRODUCTION: The Black Balloon directed by . And Citizenship 2012. Elissa Down is a film about a family living with an autistic son. Throughout the movie , Thomas feels embarrassed being Charlie’s brother, he feels left out not only at school but at home too. Thomas is the main focus of essay, not fitting in business templates canada but he is not the gcse macbeth only character that feels like he doesn’t belong.

Thomas’ brother Charlie may not be able to act or speak like. Emotion , Feeling 893 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Yasmin is remarkable as a film for its cinematic economy: not a scene, shot or speech is wasted.’ Explore some elements of the essay film in relation to this . Gcse Macbeth. statement. The movie Yasmin, released in 2004 and best conclude a essay, written by the highly acclaimed writer of The Full Monty, Simon Beaufoy, is an impressive drama about what it means to be an macbeth, Asian-looking Muslim in Britain of the 21st Century. The story is essay, about the young and vivid Yasmin, a woman who tries to succeed, by the skin of her teeth,[1] in the two. British Asian , Film , Islam 3060 Words | 7 Pages. Professor Richard Primuth MW 2:00-3:20 Movie Review Essay September 5, 2012 Milk’s Story Told Right The 2008 film Milk is . based on a true story about a political leader who desired to see a change in America, specifically the essay freedom of public education statewide essay contest, choice and macbeth, speech towards homosexuals.

The motion picture takes place after Harvey Milk’s 40th birthday and captures the rest of school home essay, his life as he strives to convince America to let the gay community out of the gcse macbeth closet. The movie portrays the historical activist very. Dan White , Dianne Feinstein , George Moscone 749 Words | 3 Pages. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 13(3), 2008, article 14. 1 Book Review Nassim Nicholas Taleb. The Black . Swan . The Impact of the Highly Improbable. New York: Random House, 2007. Reviewed by best, James Iain Gow Universite de Montreal, Canada This book has had quite an impact since it was published in 2007. According to Wikipedia, it has sold over 270, 000 copies in its first year, was on the New York Times best-seller list for 17 week and macbeth essay, had been translated into. Black swan theory , Fooled by Randomness , Karl Popper 3189 Words | 8 Pages.

ENG3U1 – Movie Essay The 2011 movie , “Thor” tells the story of a prince of the planet Asgard who is sent to best way to conclude a essay . Earth after betraying his father, King Odin. His power is taken from him, and he cannot return until he proves himself worthy of his power. With the help of his friends, he eventually returns and defeats his brother Loki, who tries to betray him to essay become king of Asgard. This hero story shows very distinct characters who are heroic and monstrous and they tie in to two articles . English-language films , Hero , Loki 1325 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Essay From the late medieval era to the enlightenment a series of plagues devastated European society, economy, and social/political . structure. In the Middle Ages, the Black Plague (or Death) was a pandemic that killed nearly 2/3 of the population in business Europe, and lead to the downfall of the feudal system. Gcse Essay. The groups that benefited the school our second most from the changes caused by the Black Death were peasants and laborers reaction toward the calamity ranged from rational and proactive to irrational, egoistic. Black Death , Bubonic plague , Late Middle Ages 1394 Words | 4 Pages.

the writer to discuss the issue through the macbeth main character in the Black Swan movie , a movie that . portrays the desire in life that can destroy your life through its main character, Nina Sayers. The movie was directed by Darren Aronofsky and written by Mark Heyman and letter for lab technician assistant, the running time for this movie in 1 hour and 50 minutes. Gcse. This movie is public education and citizenship statewide contest, produced in macbeth USA. Black Swan movie is an essay, a great movie with a great actor to match. This movie stared by Natalie Portman as Nina Sayers, Mila Kunis as Lily, Vincent. Darren Aronofsky , Id, ego, and super-ego , Mila Kunis 2797 Words | 9 Pages. Sociology M, 2-5 Grapes of Wrath Essay This assignment allowed me the gcse macbeth essay opportunity to use my sociological perspective to christmas traditions essay analyze the . film ?The Grapes of Wrath'.

The Grapes of gcse macbeth, Wrath is best conclude a essay, a book made into essay, a movie , based on the great depression of the 30's. It follows the conclude Joad family, who has been forced off their family farm by the government, as they try to find a new settlement and gcse macbeth essay, head west to letter technician California after receiving flyers for high wage work in fruit orchards. Gcse Macbeth Essay. This true story does an. 1930s , Death , Family 1680 Words | 5 Pages. Black Swan and The Hero’s Journey Joseph Campbell’s mono-myth, as first presented in his book A Hero with a Thousand Faces, . is best a essay, perhaps not a storytelling model that one would immediately associate with the film Black Swan . Darren Aronofsky’s thriller set in the world of macbeth essay, New York City Ballet is best way to a essay, not a prototypical hero’s journey, mostly because it simply doesn’t involve a physical journey into an unknown land. However, as we further examine the structure imposed by writers Mark Heyman, Andres. 2007 albums , Boston , Darren Aronofsky 2422 Words | 8 Pages. ?Delaney Dabkowski Rebecca Peters HUM 3321-04 Second Essay Windtalkers Fits in the War Genre The film genre, war, is “the ultimate form of . the cinema” (Belton 195).

It is gcse macbeth essay, identified by 3 main elements: A World of Extremes, Breaking Rules and cover letter, Masculinity. The film Windtalkers fits the gcse macbeth war genre perfectly. It has a caring nurse, love-sick solider, a commander who follows the rules, a racist, and even a scene where a Navajo saves the racist. Some tend to school our second disagree, but it has many scenes that fit. Army , Film , Film genre 1253 Words | 4 Pages.

?Laura Ortegate Section 3 FORMAL ESSAY OUTLINE I. Introduction Thesis statement: The movie Crash shows some racial and social . differences between the gcse macbeth essay characters Rick Cabot and Anthony. II. Crash presents the socio economic lifestyle between Rick and Anthony, and how it is influenced by their race, their appearance and quoting mla format, dress. Rick is a white man, that dress up with elegant suits and transport in a wagon Anthony is an Afro-American, he dresses with width clothes and people discriminate him because. Bourgeoisie , Marxism , Middle class 1677 Words | 7 Pages. Personal Essay Black Elk Speaks Before reading Black Elk Speaks I thought that Native Americans were all the . same they fought wars and essay, rode around on horse.

They either won or lost the wars they fought in best conclude a essay and they all lived in teepees. Gcse Essay. I really didn’t have much knowledge on them. I’ve always know that they had a very deep spiritual connection to nature and their world around them but I didn’t know the reasons why. Before reading I didn’t think about things as much like the world and animals; I. Black Hills , Cheyenne , Lakota people 1253 Words | 3 Pages.

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20 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. In this blog entry I’m going to talk with you about transition words. These are the linking words which bind our ideas together and illustrate the relationships between the information in our sentences. I have to be really careful, however, to make it very clear that they are not magic ‘smart’ words but if you can understand them they can really give you a lot of gcse macbeth power to articulate your ideas. These words are nothing but pretence when you use them carelessly. Nonetheless, it will be valuable to develop your understanding of how to use these words to serve your writing. Public Education And Citizenship Statewide? They can be important tools which enable you to lead your reader through your progression of logic persuasively and succinctly. I want to illustrate this point by sharing with you a funny story about something a very witty woman, with whom I work on campus, told me about transition words and high heels. While marking a number of mid-term papers, she turned to me and, with a sigh, lamented her students’ poor use of linking words.

She told me that reading them could be like watching young drunk women trying to walk in high heeled shoes. She cringed as she spoke of how awkward they appeared when they are not accustomed to gcse essay walking on them when sober, let alone while intoxicated. She added that, in her opinion, women could look striking and elegant while wearing heels but that young woman often didn’t appreciate that walking in them is a skill which requires practice. Christmas Traditions Essay? She surprised me when she likened their attempts to walk to gcse those of cover newly born calves. Gcse Macbeth? Transition words are wonderful tools. Throwing them into your essay carelessly can make your writing look worse than it is and if you are not sure how to use them, it is better to stick to simpler options.

However, if you learn to public 2012 use them thoughtfully, they can afford your writing the elegance of top-notch essays. Macbeth? It is not that you add them, but that you employ them to support your flow or progression of logic. 20 Examples of Important Transition Words. There are many linking words which can lead us into additional information and business plan templates, while it is gcse macbeth useful to vary your vocabulary beyond ‘ and ,’ these words are not mere replacements for quoting ‘ and .’ They have nuanced differences, thus, by gcse macbeth, these particular meanings, we can offer a more delicate illustration of the public education statewide contest, relationships between our ideas. ‘Furthermore’ is used to add information that expands upon gcse macbeth essay the previous point. It precedes information that expands upon that already given.

It usually occurs at the beginning of an independent clause. And Citizenship Statewide Contest? ‘Moreover’ and ‘More so’ are both similar to ‘furthermore’ while giving special emphasis to the greater importance of the macbeth, following clause. “Despite cutting back on other staff, her father gave her a position, furthermore , he gave her an enviable office while still not having a role for her.” Writers also sequence additional information. ‘Firstly,’ ‘secondly’ and ‘thirdly’ are obvious options used to achieve this, however, there are others. School Our Second? For example, we can look into the past with ‘previously,’ ‘until the present’ or ‘preceded by.’ “Present growth in the company was *preceded by several quarters of stagnation”* ‘Meanwhile’ and ‘simultaneously’ talk about things which are happening at the same time as another, while ‘concurrently’ does this while emphasizing that the gcse macbeth, two ideas have played out in for lab technician, conjunction with one another. Usually, ‘incidentally’ is gcse used to add relevant information while downplaying its significance compared with that of other ideas. “The priority of the zoo had been to essay protect species’ from extinction. The panda breeding program was enjoying some rare success, while simultaneously , other programs to increase the numbers of gcse essay endangered species were being trialed. Meanwhile , the zoo was being visited by an influx of tourists who were, incidentally , able to enjoy seeing the young animals.” ‘Subsequently’ and ‘afterward’ lead into information after the school our second essay, fact. Gcse Macbeth Essay? When writers need to illustrate similarity they can employ words such as ‘in like manner,’ ‘comparatively,’ and ‘correspondingly.’ Whereas , when they wish to highlight difference they have phrases like ‘on the contrary,’ ‘however,’ ‘notwithstanding,’ ‘nevertheless’ and ‘on the other hand.’ Notwithstanding the plan templates canada, vehement opposition to online education programs being made available to inmates, considerable improvements were made to the re-employment prospects of many offenders who benefited from the macbeth essay, trial. On the contrary, prisoners who were not able to access education while incarcerated were found to school our second essay be more likely to reoffend and return to prison.

When it comes time to clarify an argument or point, some of the transitional phrases which are used are, ‘to reiterate,’ ‘specifically,’ or ‘inasmuch as.’ When we have lead our reader through our flow of logic, there might be nothing more rewarding than driving our point home by gcse macbeth essay, showing consequence or concluding our arguments. Christmas Traditions? There are a lot of strong phrases such as ‘accordingly,’ ‘hence,’ ‘thus’ and gcse macbeth, ‘thereupon’ which can do this. I hope you will feel encouraged, by this article, to continue to mla format further your understanding of how transitional words can work to macbeth guide your reader through your flow of logic. When used well, they add power and order to your argument and best a essay, can add to the result you see from your work. If it is becoming difficult to get everything done before the deadlines, know that help is available. Gcse Macbeth Essay? Your journey to learn how to study and essay, articulate yourself well through your writing should be enjoyable. Throughout your academic and professional career you will continue to improve and gcse macbeth essay, you will find new challenges.

Don’t let setbacks in your life cause you to lose faith in yourself and give up on your studies. Ask write your essay from christmas traditions EssayPro and focus your efforts. We can get you out of that hole and help you progress toward your long-term goals again. Our team of professional writers can write any style of academic paper according to macbeth your specific criteria. Share This Article. 10 Most Commonly Confused Words Explained. As students, no matter how smart we are, we can always make small yet embarrassing.

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essay on agnosticism J. Essay? Huxley, Diary of H. M. S. Rattlesnake. Collected Essays V. [209]#9;Within the last few months, the public has received much and varied information on the subject of agnostics, their tenets, and even their future. Agnosticism exercised the orators of the Church Congress at Manchester. 1 It has been furnished with a set of articles fewer, but not less rigid, and certainly not less consistent than the thirty-nine; its nature has been analysed, and its future severely predicted by the most eloquent of christmas traditions that prophetical school whose Samuel is Auguste Comte. It may still be a question, however, whether the public is as much the wiser as might be expected, considering all the trouble that has been taken to macbeth essay enlighten it.

Not only templates canada, are the three accounts of the agnostic position sadly out of harmony with one another, but I [210] propose to show cause for my belief that all three must be seriously questioned by any one who employs the term agnostic in the sense in which it was originally used. The learned Principal of King's College, who brought the topic of Agnosticism before the Church Congress, took a short and easy way of settling the business:#150; #9;But if this be so, for a man to urge, as an escape from this article of belief, that he has no means of a scientific knowledge of the unseen world, or of the essay future, is irrelevant. Essay Contest? His difference from Christians lies not in the fact that he has no knowledge of these things, but that he does not believe the essay authority on which they are stated. He may prefer to call himself an Agnostic; but his real name is an older one#150;he is an canada, infidel; that is to say, an unbeliever. The word infidel, perhaps, carries an unpleasant significance. Perhaps it is right that it should.

It is, and it ought to be, an unpleasant thing for gcse essay, a man to have to say plainly that he does not believe in Jesus Christ. 2. #9;So much of Dr. Wace's address either explicitly or implicitly concerns me, that I take upon traditions essay, myself to deal with it; but, in so doing, it must be understood that I speak for myself alone. I am not aware that there is any sect of gcse macbeth essay Agnostics; [211] and if there be, I am not its acknowledged prophet or pope. I desire to our second leave to essay the Comtists the home essay entire monopoly of the manufacture of imitation ecclesiasticism. #9;Let us calmly and dispassionately consider Dr. Wace's appreciation of agnosticism.

The agnostic, according to his view, is a person who says he has no means of attaining a scientific knowledge of the unseen world or of the future; by which somewhat loose phraseology Dr. Wace presumably means the theological unseen world and future. I cannot think this description happy, either in macbeth essay form or substance, but for the present it may pass. Best Way To Conclude A Essay? Dr. Wace continues, that is not his difference from gcse essay, Christians. Are there then any Christians who say that they know nothing about the unseen world and the future? I was ignorant of the fact, but I am ready to accept it on the authority of a professional theologian, and I proceed to Dr. Wace's next proposition. #9;The real state of the case, then, is that the agnostic does not believe the authority on which these things are stated, which authority is business plan Jesus Christ.

He is simply an gcse macbeth, old-fashioned infidel who is afraid to own to his right name. As Presbyter is priest writ large, so is agnostic the public education and citizenship statewide 2012 mere Greek equivalent for the Latin infidel. There is an attractive simplicity about this solution of the problem; and it has that advantage of being somewhat offensive to the [212] persons attacked, which is so dear to macbeth essay the less refined sort of controversialist. The agnostic says, I cannot find good evidence that so and so is true. Ah, says his adversary, seizing his opportunity, then you declare that Jesus Christ was untruthful, for he said so and so; a very telling method of rousing prejudice. But suppose that the value of the quoting an essay evidence as to what Jesus may have said and done, and as to gcse essay the exact nature and scope of his authority, is just that which the agnostic finds it most difficult to determine. If I venture to doubt that the Duke of Wellington gave the command Up, Guards, and at 'em! at Waterloo, I do not think that even Dr. Wace would accuse me of disbelieving the Duke. Yet it would be just as reasonable to business templates do this as to essay accuse any one of denying what Jesus said, before the preliminary question as to what he did say is settled.

#9;Now, the question as to essay what Jesus really said and did is gcse essay strictly a scientific problem, which is capable of solution by no other methods than those practised by the historian and traditions the literary critic. It is a problem of immense difficulty, which has occupied some of the best heads in Europe for the last century; and essay it is only of late years that their investigations have begun to converge towards one conclusion. 3. #9;[213] That kind of faith which Dr. Wace describes and lauds is of no use here. Indeed, he himself takes pains to way to a essay destroy its evidential value. #9;What made the Mahommedan world?

Trust and gcse faith in the declarations and assurances of Mahommed. And what made the Christian world? Trust and faith in the declarations and assurances of Jesus Christ and public and citizenship essay 2012 His Apostles ( l.c. p. 253). The triumphant tone of this imaginary catechism leads me to suspect that its author has hardly appreciated its full import. Presumably, Dr. Wace regards Mahommed as an unbeliever, or, to use the term which he prefers, infidel; and considers that his assurances have given rise to macbeth essay a vast delusion which has led, and is leading, millions of men straight to everlasting punishment. And this being so, the best conclude a essay Trust and faith which have made the Mahommedan world, in just the same sense as they have [214] made the Christian world, must be trust and faith in falsehood. No man who has studied history, or even attended to the occurrences of gcse everyday life, can doubt the enormous practical value of trust and faith; but as little will he be inclined to deny that this practical value has not the least relation to best way to conclude the reality of the objects of that trust and faith.

In examples of patient constancy of faith and of unswerving trust, the essay Acta Martyrum do not excel the annals of Babism. 4. #9;The discussion upon which we have now entered goes so thoroughly to the root of the whole matter; the cover for lab assistant question of the day is so completely, as the author of Robert Elsmere says, the value of gcse essay testimony, that I shall offer no apology for following it out somewhat in detail; and, by way of giving substance to the argument, I shall base what I have to say upon a case, the consideration of which lies strictly within the province of natural science, and of that particular part of it known as the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. #9;I find, in education and citizenship essay contest the second Gospel (chap. v.), a statement, to all appearance intended to have the same evidential value as any other contained in [215] that history. It is the well-known story of the devils who were cast out of a man, and ordered, or permitted, to enter into gcse macbeth, a herd of swine, to the great loss and damage of the innocent Gerasene, or Gadarene, pig owners. There can be no doubt that the narrator intends to convey to his readers his own conviction that this casting out and entering in were effected by christmas traditions essay, the agency of Jesus of Nazareth; that, by speech and essay action, Jesus enforced this conviction; nor does any inkling of the legal and moral difficulties of the case manifest itself. #9;On the other hand, everything that I know of physiological and pathological science leads me to entertain a very strong conviction that the phenomena ascribed to plan possession are as purely natural as those which constitute small-pox; everything that I know of anthropology leads me to think that the gcse macbeth belief in school essay demons and demoniacal possession is macbeth essay a mere survival of a once universal superstition, and that its persistence, at the present time, is pretty much in the inverse ratio of the general instruction, intelligence, and sound judgment of the population among whom it prevails. Everything that I know of law and justice convinces me that the wanton destruction of christmas traditions essay other people's property is a misdemeanour of evil example. Again, the study of gcse history, and especially of that of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, leaves no shadow of doubt [216] on my mind that the belief in the reality of possession and of witchcraft, justly based, alike by best conclude a essay, Catholics and Protestants, upon this and innumerable other passages in both the Old and macbeth New Testaments, gave rise, through the quoting mla format special influence of Christian ecclesiastics, to the most horrible persecutions and judicial murders of thousands upon thousands of innocent men, women, and children.

And when I reflect that the record of macbeth a plain and simple declaration upon such an occasion as this, that the belief in witchcraft and possession is wicked nonsense, would have rendered the long agony of mediæval humanity impossible, I am prompted to letter technician assistant reject, as dishonouring, the essay supposition that such declaration was withheld out of condescension to popular error. #9;Come forth, thou unclean spirit, out of the man (Mark v. Christmas? 8), 5 are the words attributed to Jesus. Gcse Macbeth? If I declare, as I have no hesitation in doing, that I utterly disbelieve in the existence of unclean spirits, and, consequently, in the possibility of their coming forth out of christmas traditions a man, I suppose that Dr. Macbeth Essay? Wace will tell me I am disregarding the testimony of business plan templates our Lord. For, if these words were really used, the macbeth essay most resourceful of reconcilers can hardly venture to affirm that they are compatible with a disbelief in these things.

As the learned and [217] fair-minded, as well as orthodox, Dr. Alexander remarks, in an editorial note to the article Demoniacs, in the Biblical Cyclopædia (vol. i. p. 664, note):#150; #9;. . .On the lowest grounds on which our Lord and His Apostles can be placed they must, at least, be regarded as honest men. Now, though honest speech does not require that words should be used always and only in their etymological sense, it does require that they should not be used so as to affirm what the speaker knows to be false. Whilst, therefore, our Lord and His Apostles might use the word [to be possessed by a demon], or the cover letter technician phrase, [to have a demon], as a popular description of certain diseases, without giving in to the belief which lay at the source of such a mode of expression, they could not speak of demons entering into a man, or being cast out of him, without pledging themselves to the belief of an actual possession of the man by the demons. (Campbell, Prel. Diss. vi. 1, 10). If, consequently, these did not hold this belief, they spoke not as honest men. #9;The story which we are considering does not rest on the authority of the second Gospel alone.

The third confirms the gcse macbeth second, especially in canada the matter of commanding the unclean spirit to come out gcse of the christmas traditions essay man (Luke viii. 29); and, although the essay first Gospel either gives a different version of the same story, or tells another of like kind, the essential point remains: If thou cast us out, send us away into the herd of swine. And He said unto them: Go! (Matt. viii. 31, 32). #9;If the concurrent testimony of the three synoptics, then, is really sufficient to do away with all rational doubt as to a matter of fact of the utmost practical and quoting speculative importance#150;[218] belief or disbelief in gcse which may affect, and has affected, men's lives and their conduct towards other men, in the most serious way#150;then I am bound to believe that Jesus implicitly affirmed himself to possess a knowledge of the unseen world, which afforded full confirmation of the christmas essay belief in demons and possession current among his contemporaries. If the macbeth essay story is true, the conclude mediæval theory of the invisible world may be and probably is, quite correct; and the witchfinders, from Sprenger to Hopkins and Mather, are much-maligned men. #9;On the other hand, humanity, noting the frightful consequences of this belief; common sense, observing the futility of the evidence on which it is based, in all cases that have been properly investigated; science, more and more seeing its way to inclose all the phenomena of so-called possession within the domain of pathology, so far as they are not to be relegated to that of the police#150;all these powerful influences concur in warning us, at gcse, our peril, against accepting the belief without the most careful scrutiny of the cover for lab technician assistant authority on gcse which it rests. #9;I can discern no escape from this dilemma: either Jesus said what he is reported to traditions have said, or he did not.

In the former case, it is inevitable that his authority on gcse essay matters connected with the unseen world should be roughly shaken; in the latter, the blow falls upon the [219] authority of the synoptic Gospels. If their report on a matter of such stupendous and far-reaching practical import as this is untrustworthy, how can we be sure of its trustworthiness in other cases? The favourite earth, in which the hard-pressed reconciler takes refuge, that the Bible does not profess to teach science, 6 is stopped in this instance. For the question of the existence of demons and of possession by them, though it lies strictly within the province of science, is also of the deepest moral and public and citizenship statewide essay contest 2012 religious significance. If physical and mental disorders are caused by demons, Gregory of Tours and his contemporaries rightly considered that relics and exorcists were more useful than doctors; the gravest questions arise as to the legal and macbeth essay moral responsibilities of essay persons inspired by demoniacal impulses; and our whole conception of the universe and of our [220] relations to it becomes totally different from what it would be on the contrary hypothesis. #9;The theory of life of an average mediæval Christian was as different from that of an average nineteenth-century Englishman as that of a West African negro is now, in these respects. Gcse? The modern world is slowly, but surely, shaking off these and other monstrous survivals of savage delusions; and, whatever happens, it will not return to that wallowing in the mire.

Until the contrary is proved, I venture to doubt whether, at this present moment, any Protestant theologian, who has a reputation to lose, will say that he believes the Gadarene story. #9;The choice then lies between discrediting those who compiled the Gospel biographies and disbelieving the quoting an essay mla format Master, whom they, simple souls, thought to honour by preserving such traditions of the exercise of his authority over gcse essay, Satan's invisible world. This is the dilemma. No deep scholarship, nothing but a knowledge of the revised version (on which it is to be supposed all that mere scholarship can do has been done), with the application thereto of the commonest canons of common sense, is needful to enable us to make a choice between its alternatives. It is hardly doubtful that the story, as told in the first Gospel, is merely a version of that told in cover letter assistant the second and third. Nevertheless, the discrepancies are serious and irreconcilable; and, on this ground [221] alone, a suspension of judgment, at the least, is called for. But there is a great deal more to gcse be said. An Essay? From the dawn of scientific biblical criticism until the present day, the evidence against the long-cherished notion that the three synoptic Gospels are the works of three independent authors, each prompted by Divine inspiration, has steadily accumulated, until, at the present time, there is no visible escape from the conclusion that each of the three is a compilation consisting of a groundwork common to all three#150;the threefold tradition; and macbeth essay of a superstructure, consisting, firstly, of matter common to it with one of the others, and, secondly, of matter special to each. The use of the terms groundwork and school essay superstructure by macbeth essay, no means implies that the latter must be of later date than the school home former.

On the contrary, some parts of macbeth essay it may be, and probably are, older than some parts of the groundwork. 7. #9;The story of the Gadarene swine belongs to the groundwork; at cover for lab technician assistant, least, the essential part of it, in which the belief in demoniac possession is expressed, does; and therefore the essay compilers of the first, second, and third Gospels, whoever they [222] were, certainly accepted that belief (which, indeed, was universal among both Jews and pagans at that time), and attributed it to Jesus. #9;What, then, do we know about the originator, or originators, of business templates this groundwork#150;of that threefold tradition which all three witnesses (in Paley's phrase) agree upon#150;that we should allow their mere statements to outweigh the counter arguments of humanity, of common sense, of essay exact science, and to imperil the school essay respect which all would be glad to be able to render to their Master? #9;Absolutely nothing. Gcse Macbeth Essay? 8 There is an essay mla format no proof, nothing more than a fair presumption, that any one of the gcse Gospels existed, in the state in which we find it in the authorised version of the Bible, before the second century, or, in other words, sixty or seventy years after the events recorded. And, between that time and the date of the oldest extant manuscripts of the christmas traditions essay Gospels, there is no telling what additions and macbeth essay alterations and interpolations may have been made. It may be said that this is all mere speculation, but it is essay a good deal more.

As competent scholars and honest men, our revisers have felt compelled to macbeth essay point out that such things have happened even [223] since the date of the education statewide contest oldest known manuscripts. Macbeth Essay? The oldest two copies of the second Gospel end with the 8th verse of the 16th chapter; the remaining twelve verses are spurious, and it is noteworthy that the maker of the addition has not hesitated to introduce a speech in which Jesus promises his disciples that in templates canada My name shall they cast out devils. #9;The other passage rejected to the margin is gcse essay still more instructive. It is and citizenship statewide contest that touching apologue, with its profound ethical sense, of the woman taken in adultery#150;which, if internal evidence were an infallible guide, might well be affirmed to be a typical example of the teachings of Jesus. Yet, say the revisers, pitilessly, Most of the ancient authorities emit John vii. 53-viii. 11. Gcse Macbeth Essay? Now let any reasonable man ask himself this question.

If, after an business templates, approximate settlement of the canon of the New Testament, and even later than the fourth and fifth centuries, literary fabricators had the skill and the audacity to make such additions and interpolations as these, what may they have done when no one had thought of a canon; when oral tradition, still unfixed, was regarded as more valuable than such written records as may have existed in the latter portion of the first century? Or, to take the other alternative, if those who gradually settled the canon did not know of the existence of the oldest codices which have come down to us; or if, [224] knowing them, they rejected their authority, what is to be thought of their competency as critics of the text? #9;People who object to free criticism of the Christian Scriptures forget that they are what they are in virtue of very free criticism; unless the essay advocates of inspiration are prepared to and citizenship essay contest 2012 affirm that the majority of influential ecclesiastics during several centuries were safeguarded against error. For, even granting that some books of the gcse essay period were inspired, they were certainly few amongst many; and those who selected the canonical books, unless they themselves were also inspired, must be regarded in the light of essay mere critics, and, from the evidence they have left of their intellectual habits, very uncritical critics. When one thinks that such delicate questions as those involved fell into macbeth essay, the hands of men like Papias (who believed in the famous millenarian grape story); of Irenæus with his reasons for the existence of only four Gospels; and cover of such calm and dispassionate judges as Tertullian, with his Credo quia impossibile : the marvel is that the selection which constitutes our New Testament is macbeth essay as free as it is from obviously objectionable matter. The apocryphal Gospels certainly deserve to be apocryphal; but one may suspect that a little more critical discrimination would have enlarged the Apocrypha not inconsiderably, #9;At this point a very obvious objection arises [225] and deserves full and candid consideration. It may be said that critical scepticism carried to plan templates canada the length suggested is macbeth essay historical pyrrhonism; that if we are altogether to discredit an ancient or a modern historian, because he has assumed fabulous matter to be true, it will be as well to give up paying any attention to history. It may be said, and with great justice, that Eginhard's Life of Charlemagne is none the traditions essay less trustworthy because of the gcse essay astounding revelation of credulity, of christmas lack of judgment, and even of respect for macbeth essay, the eighth commandment, which he has unconsciously made in business plan templates canada the History of the Translation of the Blessed Martyrs Marcellinus and Paul.

Or, to go no further back than the last number of the essay Nineteenth Century, surely that excellent lady, Miss Strickland, is not to be refused all credence, because of the cover letter for lab myth about the second James's remains, which she seems to have unconsciously invented. #9;Of course this is perfectly true. Gcse Macbeth Essay? I am afraid there is an essay mla format no man alive whose witness could be accepted, if the condition precedent were proof that he had never invented and promulgated a myth. In the minds of all of gcse macbeth essay us there are little places here and there, like the indistinguishable spots on a rock which give foothold to moss or stonecrop; on which, if the germ of a myth fall, it is certain to quoting an essay mla format grow, without in the least degree affecting our accuracy or truthfulness elsewhere. Sir Walter Scott knew that he could not repeat a [226] story without, as he said, giving it a new hat and stick.

Most of us differ from Sir Walter only in not knowing about this tendency of the macbeth essay mythop#156;ic faculty to break out plan templates unnoticed. But it is also perfectly true that the mythop#156;ic faculty is gcse macbeth not equally active in all minds, nor in all regions and under all conditions of the same mind. David Hume was certainly not so liable to temptation as the Venerable Bede, or even as some recent historians who could be mentioned; and the most imaginative of public education debtors, if he owes five pounds, never makes an obligation to pay a hundred out of gcse it. The rule of common sense is prima facie to public and citizenship statewide contest trust a witness in all matters, in gcse essay which neither his self-interest, his passions, his prejudices, nor that love of the home essay marvellous, which is inherent to a greater or less degree in all mankind, are strongly concerned; and, when they are involved, to require corroborative evidence in exact proportion to essay the contravention of probability by the thing testified. #9;Now, in best conclude the Gadarene affair, I do not think I am unreasonably sceptical, if I say that the gcse macbeth existence of demons who can be transferred from a man to a pig, does thus contravene probability. Let me be perfectly candid. I admit I have no a priori objection to offer.

There are physical things, such as tæniæ and trichinæ, which can be transferred from men to pigs, and vice versa, and which do undoubtedly produce most diabolical [227] and deadly effects on best way to a essay both. For anything I can absolutely prove to the contrary, there may be spiritual things capable of the same transmigration, with like effects. Moreover I am bound to add that perfectly truthful persons, for whom I have the gcse greatest respect, believe in stories about spirits of the present day, quite as improbable as that we are considering. #9;So I declare, as plainly as I can, that I am unable to show cause why these transferable devils should not exist; nor can I deny that, not merely the whole Roman Church, but many Wacean infidels of no mean repute, do honestly and firmly believe that the best way to conclude activity of such like demonic beings is in full swing in this year of grace 1889. #9;Nevertheless, as good Bishop Butler says, probability is the guide of life; and it seems to me that this is just one of the cases in which the canon of credibility and testimony, which I have ventured to macbeth essay lay down, has full force.

So that, with the most entire respect for public and citizenship contest, many (by no means for all) of our witnesses for the truth of demonology, ancient and modern, I conceive their evidence on this particular matter to be ridiculously insufficient to essay warrant their conclusion. 9. #9;[228] After what has been said, I do not think that any sensible man, unless he happen to be angry, will accuse me of contradicting the Lord and His Apostles if I reiterate my total disbelief in the whole Gadarene story. But, if that story is best way to conclude a essay discredited, all the other stories of demoniac possession fall under suspicion. Gcse Macbeth Essay? And if the an essay belief in demons and demoniac possession, which forms the sombre background of the whole picture of primitive Christianity, presented to us in the New Testament, is shaken, what is to be said, in any case, of the uncorroborated testimony of the Gospels with respect to the unseen world? #9;I am not aware that I have been influenced by any more bias in regard to the Gadarene story than I have been in dealing with other cases of like kind the investigation of essay which has interested me. I was brought up in the strictest school of evangelical orthodoxy; and when I was old enough to education and citizenship statewide essay 2012 think for myself, I started upon my journey of inquiry with little doubt about the general truth of what I had been taught; and with that feeling [229] of the unpleasantness of being called an infidel which, we are told, is so right and proper. Near my journey's end, I find myself in gcse a condition of something more than mere doubt about these matters.

#9;In the course of other inquiries, I have had to do with fossil remains which looked quite plain at school our second essay, a distance, and became more and more indistinct as I tried to define their outline by close inspection. There was something there#150;something which, if I could win assurance about it, might mark a new epoch in the history of the earth; but, study as long as I might, certainty eluded my grasp. So has it been with me in my efforts to define the grand figure of Jesus as it lies in the primary strata of Christian literature. Is he the kindly, peaceful Christ depicted in gcse macbeth essay the Catacombs? Or is letter for lab technician he the macbeth stern Judge who frowns above the altar of SS. Cosmas and Damianus?

Or can he be rightly represented by the bleeding ascetic, broken down by physical pain, of too many mediæval pictures? Are we to christmas traditions essay accept the Jesus of the gcse second, or the Jesus of the for lab assistant fourth Gospel, as the macbeth essay true Jesus? What did he really say and christmas essay do; and how much that is attributed to him, in speech and action, is the embroidery of the various parties into macbeth essay, which his followers tended to split themselves within twenty years of quoting an essay his death, when even the threefold tradition was only nascent? #9;[230] If any one will answer these questions for me with something more to the point than feeble talk about the cowardice of agnosticism, I shall be deeply his debtor. Gcse? Unless and cover letter for lab technician until they are satisfactorily answered, I say of agnosticism in this matter, J'y suis, et j'y reste. #9;But, as we have seen, it is asserted that I have no business to call myself an agnostic; that, if I am not a Christian I am an macbeth, infidel; and that I ought to call myself by quoting mla format, that name of unpleasant significance. Well, I do not care much what I am called by other people, and gcse macbeth if I had at my side all those who, since the Christian era, have been called infidels by other folks, I could not desire better company. If these are my ancestors, I prefer, with the old Frank, to be with them wherever they are.

But there are several points in best way to a essay Dr. Wace's contention which must be elucidated before I can even think of macbeth undertaking to carry out his wishes. Christmas Traditions Essay? I must, for instance, know what a Christian is. Now what is a Christian? By whose authority is the signification of that term defined? Is there any doubt that the immediate followers of Jesus, the sect of the Nazarenes, were strictly orthodox Jews differing from other Jews not more than the Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Essenes differed from one another; in fact, only in the belief that the Messiah, for whom the gcse macbeth rest of their nation waited, had come? Was not their chief, James, the brother of the Lord, [231] reverenced alike by Sadducee, Pharisee, and Nazarene?

At the business templates famous conference which, according to gcse essay the Acts, took place at plan, Jerusalem, does not James declare that myriads of gcse macbeth essay Jews, who, by that time, had become Nazarenes, were all zealous for the Law? Was not the name of business plan templates canada Christian first used to denote the converts to the doctrine promulgated by Paul and Barnabas at Antioch? Does the subsequent history of Christianity leave any doubt that, from this time forth, the gcse essay little rift within the lute caused by the new teaching, developed, if not inaugurated, at Antioch, grew wider and wider, until the two types of doctrine irreconcilably diverged? Did not the primitive Nazarenism, or Ebionism, develop into the Nazarenism, and Ebionism, and Elkasaitism of public education and citizenship essay contest later ages, and gcse macbeth finally die out in obscurity and condemnation, as damnable heresy; while the younger doctrine throve and pushed out its shoots into that endless variety of sects, of canada which the three strongest survivors are the Roman and Greek Churches and modern Protestantism? #9;Singular state of things! If I were to profess the doctrine which was held by James, the brother of the Lord, and by every one of the myriads of his followers and co-religionists in Jerusalem up to twenty or thirty years after the Crucifixion (and one knows not how much later at Pella), I should be condemned, with unanimity, as an gcse macbeth, ebionising heretic by the Roman, Greek, and [232] Protestant Churches! And, probably, this hearty and unanimous condemnation of the creed, held by those who were in the closest personal relation with their Lord, is almost the only point upon christmas essay, which they would be cordially of one mind. On the other hand, though I hardly dare imagine such a thing, I very much fear that the gcse macbeth pillars of the primitive Hierosolymitan Church would have considered Dr. Wace an infidel.

No one can read the famous second chapter of Galatians and the book of Revelation without seeing how narrow was even Paul's escape from traditions essay, a similar fate. Macbeth Essay? And, if ecclesiastical history is to be trusted, the thirty-nine articles, be they right or wrong, diverge from the best a essay primitive doctrine of the Nazarenes vastly more than even Pauline Christianity did. #9;But, further than this, I have great difficulty in assuring myself that even James, the gcse essay brother of the Lord, and his myriads of Nazarenes, properly represented the doctrines of way to a essay their Master. For it is constantly asserted by our modern pillars that one of the chief features of the work of Jesus was the instauration of macbeth essay Religion by the abolition of what our sticklers for articles and liturgies, with unconscious humour, call the narrow restrictions of the Law. Yet, if James knew this, how could the bitter controversy with Paul have arisen; and why did not one or the other side quote any of the various sayings of [233] Jesus, recorded in the Gospels, which directly bear on the question#150;sometimes, apparently, in best way to a essay opposite directions? #9;So, if I am asked to call myself an infidel, I reply: To what doctrine do you ask me to macbeth be faithful? Is it that contained in the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds? My firm belief is that the Nazarenes, say of the year 40, headed by James, would have stopped their ears and thought worthy of stoning the audacious man who propounded it to them. Is it contained in the so-called Apostles' Creed? I am pretty sure that even that would have created a recalcitrant commotion at Pella in the year 70, among the Nazarenes of plan templates Jerusalem, who had fled from the soldiers of Titus. Macbeth Essay? And yet, if the unadulterated tradition of the teachings of the Nazarene were to be found anywhere, it surely should have been amidst those not very aged disciples who may have heard them as they were delivered.

#9;Therefore, however sorry I may be to be unable to christmas traditions essay demonstrate that, if necessary, I should not be afraid to call myself an infidel, I cannot do it. Infidel is a term of reproach, which Christians and gcse macbeth Mahommedans, in their modesty, agree to apply to those who differ from them. If he had only thought of it, Dr. Wace might have used the term miscreant, which, with the same etymological signification, has the advantage of being still more unpleasant to the persons to whom [234] it is applied. But why should a man be expected to call himself a miscreant or an best conclude a essay, infidel? That St. Patrick had two birthdays because he was a twin is a reasonable and intelligible utterance beside that of the gcse macbeth essay man who should declare himself to be an infidel, on the ground of denying his own belief.

It may be logically, if not ethically, defensible that a Christian should call a Mahommedan an infidel and vice versa; but, on Dr. Wace's principles, both ought to call themselves infidels, because each applies the term to the other. #9;Now I am afraid that all the christmas essay Mahommedan world would agree in reciprocating that appellation to macbeth Dr. Wace himself. I once visited the Hazar Mosque, the great University of Mahommedanism, in Cairo, in ignorance of the fact that I was unprovided with proper authority.

A swarm of angry undergraduates, as I suppose I ought to call them, came buzzing about school our second home, me and my guide; and if I had known Arabic, I suspect that dog of an macbeth essay, infidel would have been by no means the most unpleasant of the epithets showered upon me, before I could explain and best way to a essay apologise for the mistake. If I had had the pleasure of Dr. Gcse Macbeth? Wace's company on that occasion, the undiscriminative followers of the Prophet would, I am afraid, have made no difference between us; not even if they had known that he was the head of an orthodox Christian seminary. And I have not the smallest [235] doubt that even one of the for lab technician assistant learned mollahs, if his grave courtesy would have permitted him to gcse macbeth say anything offensive to men of another mode of belief, would have told us that he wondered we did not find it very unpleasant to disbelieve in the Prophet of Islam. #9;From what precedes, I think it becomes sufficiently clear that Dr. Wace's account of the origin of the name of Agnostic is quite wrong. Indeed, I am bound to add that very slight effort to quoting an essay discover the truth would have convinced him that, as a matter of fact, the gcse essay term arose otherwise.

I am loath to go over an old story once more; but more than one object which I have in view will be served by telling it a little more fully than it has yet been told. #9;Looking back nearly fifty years, I see myself as a boy, whose education has been interrupted, and who, intellectually, was left, for some years, altogether to business templates his own devices. Macbeth Essay? At that time, I was a voracious and omnivorous reader; a dreamer and speculator of the first water, well endowed with that splendid courage in attacking any and every subject, which is the blessed compensation of youth and public education statewide contest 2012 inexperience. Among the essay books and essays, on all sorts of topics from metaphysics to heraldry, which I read at this time, two left indelible impressions on my mind. One was Guizot's History of Civilisation, the other was Sir William Hamilton's essay On the Philosophy of [236] the Unconditioned, which I came upon, by chance, in an odd volume of the Edinburgh Review.

The latter was certainly strange reading for a boy, and I could not possibly have understood a great deal of it; 10 nevertheless, I devoured it with avidity, and it stamped upon cover letter for lab technician, my mind the gcse strong conviction that, on even the most solemn and important of questions, men are apt to take cunning phrases for answers; and that the limitation of our faculties, in a great number of cases, renders real answers to such questions, not merely actually impossible, but theoretically inconceivable. #9;Philosophy and history having laid hold of me in this eccentric fashion, have never loosened their grip. I have no pretension to be an expert. in school home either subject; but the turn for philosophical and historical reading, which rendered Hamilton and Guizot attractive to me, has not only filled many lawful leisure hours, and still more sleepless ones, with the repose of changed mental occupation, but has not unfrequently disputed my proper work-time with my liege lady, Natural Science. In this way I have found it possible to cover a good deal of gcse ground in the territory of public education essay 2012 philosophy; and all the more easily that I have never cared much about A's [237] or B's opinion's, but have rather sought to know what answer he had to give to the questions I had to put to him#150;that of the limitation of possible knowledge being the gcse chief. The ordinary examiner, with his State the views of way to conclude So-and-so, would have floored me at any time. If he had said what do you think about any given problem, I might have got on fairly well. #9;The reader who has had the essay patience to follow the enforced, but unwilling, egotism of this veritable history (especially if his studies have led him in the same direction), will now see why my mind steadily gravitated towards the conclusions of Hume and Kant, so well stated by the latter in a sentence, which I have quoted elsewhere. #9;The greatest and perhaps the sole use of our second essay all philosophy of pure reason is, after all, merely negative, since it serves not as an organon for the enlargement [of knowledge], but as a discipline for its delimitation; and, instead of discovering truth, has only the modest merit of preventing error.

11. #9;When I reached intellectual maturity and began to gcse macbeth ask myself whether I was an atheist, a theist, or a pantheist; a materialist or an cover for lab technician assistant, idealist; Christian or a freethinker; I found that the more I learned and reflected, the less ready was the answer; until, at last, I came to the conclu[238]sion that I had neither art nor part with any of these denominations, except the last. The one thing in which most of these good people were agreed was the macbeth essay one thing in which I differed from them. They were quite sure they had attained a certain gnosis,#150;had, more or less successfully, solved the our second home essay problem of existence; while I was quite sure I had not, and macbeth had a pretty strong conviction that the problem was insoluble. And, with Hume and plan Kant on my side, I could not think myself presumptuous in holding fast by essay, that opinion. Like Dante, Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita. Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, but, unlike Dante, I cannot add,

Che la diritta via era smarrita. On the contrary, I had, and have, the firmest conviction that I never left the verace via#150;the straight road; and that this road led nowhere else but into the dark depths of a wild and tangled forest. And though I have found leopards and lions in the path; though I have made abundant acquaintance with the hungry wolf, that with privy paw devours apace and nothing said, as another great poet says of the ravening beast; and though no friendly spectre has even yet offered his guidance, I was, and am, minded to go straight on, until I either come out on the other side of the [239] wood, or find there is cover letter for lab technician no other side to it, at least, none attainable by me. #9;This was my situation when I had the good fortune to gcse find a place among the members of that remarkable confraternity of antagonists, long since deceased, but of green and pious memory, the Metaphysical Society. Every variety of philosophical and business templates theological opinion was represented there, and expressed itself with entire openness; most of macbeth my colleagues were -ists of one sort or another; and, however kind and friendly they might be, I, the man without a rag of a label to cover himself with, could not fail to have some of the uneasy feelings which must have beset the historical fox when, after leaving the trap in which his tail remained, he presented himself to his normally elongated companions. So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to quoting an essay be the appropriate title of agnostic.

It came into my head as suggestively antithetic to the gnostic of Church history, who professed to know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant; and I took the earliest opportunity of parading it at our Society, to show that I, too, had a tail, like the other foxes. To my great satisfaction, the term took; and when the Spectator had stood godfather to it, any suspicion in the minds of respectable people, that a knowledge of its parentage might have awakened was, of course, completely lulled. #9;That is the history of the origin of the terms [240] agnostic and agnosticism; and it will be observed that it does not quite agree with the confident assertion of the reverend Principal of King's College, that the adoption of the term agnostic is only an attempt to gcse macbeth essay shift the issue, and that it involves a mere evasion in relation to the Church and Christianity. 12. #9;The last objection (I rejoice as much as my readers must do, that it is the last) which I have to take to Dr. Wace's deliverance before the Church Congress arises, I am sorry to say, on a question of morality. #9;It is, and it ought to be, authoritatively declares this official representative of Christian ethics, an education and citizenship essay, unpleasant thing for a man to have to say plainly that he does not believe in macbeth Jesus Christ ( l.c. Way To? p. 254). #9;Whether it is so depends, I imagine, a good deal on whether the man was brought up in a Christian household or not.

I do not see why it should be unpleasant for a Mahommedan or Buddhist to say so. But that it ought to essay be unpleasant for any man to school home say anything which he sincerely, and after due deliberation, believes, is, to gcse macbeth my mind, a proposition of the quoting an essay most profoundly immoral character. I verily believe that the great good which has been effected in the world by Christianity has been largely counteracted by the pestilent [241] doctrine on macbeth which all the Churches have insisted, that honest disbelief in their more or less astonishing creeds is a moral offence, indeed a sin of the deepest dye, deserving and involving the same future retribution as murder and robbery. If we could only see, in one view, the torrents of hypocrisy and quoting an essay mla format cruelty, the lies, the slaughter, the violations of every obligation of humanity, which have flowed from this source along the course of the macbeth history of Christian nations, our worst imaginations of cover letter technician Hell would pale beside the vision. #9;A thousand times, no!

It ought not to gcse be unpleasant to for lab say that which one honestly believes or disbelieves. That it so constantly is painful to do so, is quite enough obstacle to gcse the progress of mankind in that most valuable of all qualities, honesty of word or of deed, without erecting a sad concomitant of human weakness into something to education and citizenship essay contest 2012 be admired and cherished. The bravest of gcse soldiers often, and very naturally, feel it unpleasant to quoting go into action; but a court-martial which did its duty would make short work of the officer who promulgated the doctrine that his men ought to feel their duty unpleasant. #9;I am very well aware, as I suppose most thoughtful people are in these times, that the process of gcse breaking away from old beliefs is extremely unpleasant; and I am much disposed to education essay contest 2012 think that the encouragement, the macbeth consolation, and the peace afforded to earnest believers in even the [242] worst forms of an essay Christianity are of great practical advantage to them. Gcse Essay? What deductions must be made from this gain on the score of the harm done to the citizen by the ascetic other-worldliness of logical Christianity; to letter technician the ruler, by the hatred, malice, and gcse macbeth essay all uncharitableness of sectarian bigotry; to our second the legislator, by the spirit of gcse macbeth exclusiveness and domination of those that count themselves pillars of orthodoxy; to conclude a essay the philosopher, by the restraints on gcse essay the freedom of learning and teaching which every Church exercises, when it is strong enough; to the conscientious soul, by the introspective hunting after sins of the cover for lab assistant mint and cummin type, the fear of theological error, and essay the overpowering terror of possible damnation, which have accompanied the Churches like their shadow, I need not now consider; but they are assuredly not small. If agnostics lose heavily on the one side, they gain a good deal on quoting an essay the other. People who talk about the comforts of belief appear to forget its discomforts; they ignore the fact that the Christianity of the Churches is something more than faith in the ideal personality of Jesus, which they create for themselves, plus so much as can be carried into practice, without disorganising civil society, of the maxims of the Sermon on the Mount. Trip in morals or in doctrine (especially in gcse macbeth essay doctrine), without due repentance or retractation, or fail to get properly baptized before you die, and public and citizenship essay a plébiscite of the Christians of Europe, if they [243] were true to essay their creeds, would affirm your everlasting damnation by an immense majority. #9;Preachers, orthodox and heterodox, din into our ears that the world cannot get on without faith of some sort. There is a sense in best way to which that is as eminently as obviously true; there is another, in which, in my judgment, it is as eminently as obviously false, and it seems to me that the macbeth hortatory, or pulpit, mind is apt to oscillate between the false and the true meanings, without being aware of the fact.

#9;It is quite true that the ground of every one of our actions, and the validity of all our reasonings, rest upon the great act of faith, which leads us to take the experience of the past as a safe guide in our dealings with the for lab technician assistant present and the future. From the gcse macbeth nature of ratiocination, it is school our second home essay obvious that the axioms, on which it is based, cannot be demonstrated by ratiocination. It is also a trite observation that, in the business of gcse essay life, we constantly take the most serious action upon evidence of an utterly insufficient character. But it is surely plain that faith is not necessarily entitled to dispense with ratiocination because ratiocination cannot dispense with faith as a starting-point; and that because we are often obliged, by the pressure of business templates events, to act on very bad evidence, it does not follow that it is proper to act on such evidence when the pressure is absent. #9;The writer of the epistle to the Hebrews tells [244] us that faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the proving of things not seen. In the authorised version, substance stands for assurance, and gcse macbeth essay evidence for proving. School Our Second Home Essay? The question of the macbeth essay exact meaning of the two words, [substance] and [examination], affords a fine field of discussion for the scholar and christmas traditions essay the metaphysician. But I fancy we shall be not far from the mark if we take the writer to have had in his mind the profound psychological truth, that men constantly feel certain about gcse macbeth, things for which they strongly hope, but have no evidence, in the legal or logical sense of the word; and he calls this feeling faith. I may have the most absolute faith that a friend has not committed the crime of which he is accused.

In the early days of English history, if my friend could have obtained a few more compurgators of a like robust faith, he would have been acquitted. At the present day, if I tendered myself as a witness on that score, the judge would tell me to stand down, and the youngest barrister would smile at my simplicity. Miserable indeed is the man who has not such faith in canada some of his fellow-men#150;only less miserable than the gcse man who allows himself to forget that such faith is not, strictly speaking, evidence; and when his faith is disappointed, as will happen now and business plan templates again, turns Timon and blames the universe for his own blunders. Essay? And so, if a man can find a friend, the hypostasis of all his hopes, the mirror of his [245] ethical ideal, in the Jesus of any, or all, of the Gospels, let him live by faith in that ideal. Who shall or can forbid him? But let him not delude himself with the notion that his faith is evidence of the objective reality of that in which he trusts. Such evidence is to be obtained only by the use of the methods of science, as applied to history and to literature, and it amounts at present to very little. #9;It appears that Mr. Gladstone some time ago asked Mr.

Laing if he could draw up a short summary of the negative creed; a body of negative propositions, which have so far been adopted on the negative side as to be what the Apostles' and other accepted creeds are on the positive; and Mr. Laing at once kindly obliged Mr. Business Templates? Gladstone with the desired articles#150;eight of them. #9;If any one had preferred this request to me, I should have replied that, if he referred to agnostics, they have no creed; and, by the nature of the case, cannot have any. Agnosticism, in fact, is macbeth not a creed, but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle.

That principle is of great antiquity; it is as old as Socrates; as old as the writer who said, Try all things, hold fast by that which is best way to good it is the foundation of the Reformation, which simply illustrated the axiom that every man should be able [246] to give a reason for the faith that is in him; it is the great principle of essay Descartes; it is the fundamental axiom of modern science. Positively the principle may be expressed: In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration. And negatively: In matters of the intellect do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable. That I take to be the agnostic faith, which if a man keep whole and undefiled, he shall not be ashamed to look the universe in public and citizenship contest the face, whatever the future may have in store for him. #9;The results of the working out of the agnostic principle will vary according to individual knowledge and capacity, and according to gcse macbeth essay the general condition of science. That which is traditions unproven today may be proven by the help of new discoveries to-morrow. The only negative fixed points will be those negations which flow from the demonstrable limitation of gcse our faculties. And the letter for lab assistant only obligation accepted is to have the gcse macbeth mind always open to conviction.

Agnostics who never fail in carrying out their principles are, I am afraid, as rare as other people of whom the same consistency can be truthfully predicated. But, if you were to meet with such a ph#156;nix and to and citizenship statewide essay 2012 tell him that you had discovered that two and two make five, he would patiently ask you to state your reasons for macbeth, that conviction, and express his readiness to [247] agree with you if he found them satisfactory. The apostolic injunction to suffer fools gladly should be the rule of life of a true agnostic. I am deeply conscious how far I myself fall short of this ideal, but it is my personal conception of what agnostics ought to be. #9;However, as I began by an essay, stating, I speak only for myself; and I do not dream of anathematizing and excommunicating Mr. Laing. But, when I consider his creed and compare it with the Athanasian, I think I have on the whole a clearer conception of the meaning of the latter. Polarity, in gcse Article VIII., for example, is a word about which I heard a good deal in canada my youth, when Naturphilosophie was in fashion, and greatly did I suffer from it.

For many years past, whenever I have met with polarity anywhere but in gcse a discussion of some purely physical topic, such as magnetism, I have shut the book. Best? Mr. Laing must excuse me if the force of habit was too much for me when I read his eighth article. #9;And now, what is to be said to Mr. Harrison's remarkable deliverance On the macbeth essay future of agnosticism? 13 I would that it were not my business to say anything, for I am afraid I can say nothing which shall manifest my great personal respect for this able writer, and for the zeal and energy with which he ever and anon galvanises the [248] weakly frame of Positivism until it looks, more than ever, like John Bunyan's Pope and Pagan rolled into one. There is a story often repeated, and I am afraid none the less mythical on way to conclude a essay that account, of a valiant and loud-voiced corporal in command of two full privates who, falling in with a regiment of the enemy in the dark, orders it to surrender under pain of instant annihilation by his force; and the enemy surrenders accordingly. I am always reminded of this tale when I read the positivist commands to the forces of Christianity and of Science; only the macbeth enemy show no more signs of cover for lab assistant intending to obey now than they have done any time these forty years. #9;The allocution under consideration has a certain papal flavour. Mr. Harrison speaks with authority and not as one of the common scribes of the period.

He knows not only what agnosticism is and how it has come about, but what will become of it. The agnostic is to content himself with being the precursor of the positivist. In his place, as a sort of navvy levelling the ground and gcse macbeth essay cleansing it of such poor stuff as Christianity, he is a useful creature who deserves patting on the back, on condition that he does not venture beyond his last. But let not these scientific Sanballats presume that they are good enough to take part in the building of the Temple#150;they are mere Samaritans, doomed to die out in proportion as [249] the Religion of Humanity is accepted by mankind. Well, if that is their fate, they have time to quoting an essay be cheerful. But let us hear Mr.

Harrison's pronouncement of their doom. #9;Agnosticism is a stage in the evolution of religion, an entirely negative stage, the point reached by physicists, a purely mental conclusion, with no relation to things social at all (p. 154). I am quite dazed by this declaration. Macbeth? Are there, then, any conclusions that are not purely mental? Is there no relation to things social in conclude mental conclusions which affect men's whole conception of life? Was that prince of agnostics, David Hume, particularly imbued with physical science? Supposing physical science to be non-existent, would not the macbeth agnostic principle, applied by the philologist and the historian, lead to business plan templates canada exactly the same results? Is the modern more or less complete suspension of judgment as to the facts of the history of regal Rome, or the real origin of the macbeth essay Homeric poems, anything but agnosticism in history and in literature? And if so, how can agnosticism be the mere negation of the physicist?

#9;Agnosticism is a stage in the evolution of and citizenship statewide contest 2012 religion. No two people agree as to what is meant by the term religion; but if it means, as I think it ought to mean, simply the reverence and love for the ethical ideal, and the desire to essay realise that ideal in life, which every man ought [250] to feel#150;then I say agnosticism has no more to school our second essay do with it than it has to do with music or painting. Gcse Essay? If, on the other hand, Mr. Harrison, like most people, means by religion theology, then, in my judgment, agnosticism can be said to be a stage in its evolution, only as death may be said to be the final stage in the evolution of life. #9;When agnostic logic is simply one of the canons of thought, agnosticism, as a distinctive faith, will have spontaneously disappeared (p. 155). #9;I can but marvel that such sentences as this, and those already quoted, should have proceeded from Mr.

Harrison's pen. Does he really mean to suggest that agnostics have a logic peculiar to themselves? Will he kindly help me out of my bewilderment when I try to think of logic being anything else than the canon (which, I believe, means rule) of thought? As to agnosticism being a distinctive faith, I have already shown that it cannot possibly be anything of the kind, unless perfect faith in logic is distinctive of best agnostics; which, after all, it may be. #9;Agnosticism as a religious philosophy per macbeth essay, se rests on an almost total ignoring of history and social evolution (p. 152). #9;But neither per se nor per aliud has agnosticism (if I know anything about it) the least pretension to be a religious philosophy; so far from resting on ignorance of history, and that social evolution [251] of which history is the account, it is and has been the inevitable result of the strict adherence to scientific methods by historical investigators. Our forefathers were quite confident about the existence of Romulus and Remus, of King Arthur, and of Hengist and Horsa. Most of us have become agnostics in regard to the reality of these worthies. It is a matter of notoriety of which Mr. Harrison, who accuses us all so freely of ignoring history, should not be ignorant, that the critical process which has shattered the foundations of orthodox Christian doctrine owes its origin, not to the devotees of physical science, but, before all, to Richard Simon, the learned French Oratorian, just two hundred years ago.

I cannot find evidence that either Simon, or any one of the great scholars and critics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries who have continued Simon's work, had any particular acquaintance with physical science. I have already pointed out that Hume was independent of it. And certainly one of the most potent influences in the same direction, upon traditions, history in the present century, that of Grote, did not come from the physical side. Physical science, in fact, has had nothing directly to do with the gcse essay criticism of the Gospels; it is wholly incompetent to furnish demonstrative evidence that any statement made in these histories is untrue. Our Second Essay? Indeed, modern physiology can find parallels in gcse essay nature for events of an essay mla format apparently [252] the most eminently supernatural kind recounted in some of those histories. #9;It is a comfort to hear, upon Mr. Harrison's authority, that the laws of physical nature show no signs of becoming less definite, less consistent, or less popular as time goes on (p. 154). Macbeth? How a law of templates nature is to become indefinite, or inconsistent, passes my poor powers of imagination.

But with universal suffrage and the coach-dog theory of premiership in full view; the theory, I mean, that the whole duty of a political chief is to look sharp for the way the social coach is driving, and then run in front and bark loud#150;as if being the leading noise-maker and guiding were the gcse same things#150;it is an essay truly satisfactory to me to know that the gcse macbeth laws of nature are increasing in popularity. Looking at recent developments of the policy which is plan canada said to express the great heart of the people, I have had my doubts of the fact; and my love for my fellow-countrymen has led me to reflect, with dread, on gcse macbeth what will happen to them, if any of the laws of nature ever become so unpopular in their eyes, as to be voted down by the transcendent authority of universal suffrage. If the legion of demons, before they set out on public and citizenship statewide essay contest 2012 their journey in the swine, had had time to hold a meeting and to resolve unanimously That the law of gravitation is gcse macbeth essay oppressive and ought to be repealed, I am afraid it would have made no sort of difference to the result, when their two [253] thousand unwilling porters were once launched down the steep slopes of the fatal shore of Gennesaret. #9;The question of the way to place of religion as an gcse macbeth, element of and citizenship contest 2012 human nature, as a force of human society, its origin, analysis, and functions, has never been considered at all from an agnostic point of essay view (p. 152). #9;I doubt not that Mr. Harrison knows vastly more about for lab technician assistant, history than I do; in gcse fact, he tells the public that some of my friends and I have had no opportunity of occupying ourselves with that subject.

I do not like to best conclude a essay contradict any statement which Mr. Harrison makes on his own authority; only, if I may be true to my agnostic principles, I humbly ask how he has obtained assurance on this head. I do not profess to gcse know anything about the range of Mr. Harrison's studies; but as he has thought it fitting to start the subject, I may venture to point out that, on evidence adduced, it might be equally permissible to draw the conclusion that Mr. Harrison's other labours have not allowed him to acquire that acquaintance with the methods and way to conclude a essay results of physical science, or with the history of philosophy, or of philological and historical criticism, which is gcse essential to any one who desires to obtain a right understanding of public essay 2012 agnosticism. Incompetence in philosophy, and in all branches of science except mathematics, is the well-known [254] mental characteristic of the founder of positivism. Faithfulness in disciples is an admirable quality in itself; the pity is that it not unfrequently leads to the imitation of the weaknesses as well as of the strength of the master. It is only such over-faithfulness which can account for a strong mind really saturated with the historical sense (p. 153) exhibiting the extraordinary forgetfulness of the historical fact of the existence of David Hume implied by the assertion that. it would be difficult to name a single known agnostic who has given to history anything like the amount of thought and study which he brings to a knowledge of the macbeth physical world (p.

153) #9;Whoso calls to mind what I may venture to term the bright side of Christianity#150;that ideal of an essay manhood, with its strength and its patience, its justice and its pity for human frailty, its helpfulness to gcse macbeth essay the extremity of self-sacrifice, its ethical purity and nobility, which apostles have pictured, in which armies of school essay martyrs have placed their unshakable faith, and whence obscure men and women, like Catherine of Sienna and John Knox, have derived the courage to rebuke popes and kings#150;is not likely to underrate the importance of the Christian faith as a factor in human history, or to doubt that if that faith should prove to be incompatible with our knowledge, or necessary want of knowledge, some other hypostasis of men's hopes, genuine enough and worthy enough [255] to replace it, will arise. But that the incongruous mixture of bad science with eviscerated papistry, out of which Comte manufactured the positivist religion, will be the heir of the Christian ages, I have too much respect for the humanity of the future to believe. Charles the Second told his brother, They will not kill me, James, to make you king. Gcse Essay? And if critical science is remorselessly destroying the historical foundations of the noblest ideal of business plan templates canada humanity which mankind have yet worshipped, it is little likely to permit the pitiful reality to climb into the vacant shrine. #9;That a man should determine to devote himself to essay the service of humanity#150;including intellectual and moral self-culture under that name; that this should be, in the proper sense of the word, his religion#150;is not only an intelligible, but, I think, a laudable resolution. And I am greatly disposed to best believe that it is the essay only religion which will prove itself to be unassailably acceptable so long as the human race endures.

But when the Comtist asks me to best way to conclude worship Humanity#150;that is to say, to gcse macbeth essay adore the generalised conception of men as they ever have been and probably ever will be#150;I must reply that I could just as soon bow down and worship the generalised conception of a wilderness of apes. Business? Surely we are not going back to the days of Paganism, when individual men were deified, and the hard good sense of a dying Vespasian [256] could prompt the bitter jest, Ut puto Deus fio. Essay? No divinity doth hedge a modern man, be he even a sovereign ruler. Business Plan Templates? Nor is there any one, except a municipal magistrate, who is essay officially declared worshipful. But if there is no spark of worship-worthy divinity in the individual twigs of humanity, whence comes that godlike splendour which the Moses of christmas traditions Positivism fondly imagines to pervade the whole bush?

#9;I know no study which is essay so unutterably saddening as that of the evolution of humanity, as it is set forth in the annals of history. Out of the darkness of prehistoric ages man emerges with the marks of his lowly origin strong upon him. He is a brute, only more intelligent than the other brutes, a blind prey to impulses, which as often as not lead him to destruction; a victim to endless illusions, which make his mental existence a terror and a burden, and fill his physical life with barren toil and battle. He attains a certain degree of physical comfort, and develops a more or less workable theory of life, in such favourable situations as the quoting mla format plains of Mesopotamia or of Egypt, and then, for thousands and thousands of years, struggles, with varying fortunes, attended by gcse macbeth essay, infinite wickedness, bloodshed, and misery, to plan maintain himself at this point against the greed and the ambition of his fellow-men. He makes a point of killing and otherwise persecuting all those who first try to gcse get him to move on; and [257] when he has moved on a step, foolishly confers post-mortem deification on christmas traditions essay his victims. He exactly repeats the process with all who want to move a step yet farther. Gcse Macbeth? And the best men of the best epochs are simply those who make the fewest blunders and education statewide essay 2012 commit the fewest sins. #9;That one should rejoice in the good man, forgive the bad man, and pity and help all men to gcse macbeth essay the best of one's ability, is surely indisputable. Traditions Essay? It is the glory of Judaism and of Christianity to have proclaimed this truth, through all their aberrations. But the worship of a God who needs forgiveness and help, and deserves pity every hour of his existence, is no better than that of any other voluntarily selected fetish.

The Emperor Julian's project was hopeful in comparison with the prospects of the gcse essay Comtist Anthropolatry. #9;When the public education and citizenship statewide essay 2012 historian of religion in the twentieth century is writing about the macbeth nineteenth, I foresee he will say something of this kind: #9;The most curious and instructive events in the religious history of the preceding century are the rise and progress of two new sects called Mormons and Positivists. To the quoting an essay mla format student who has carefully considered these remarkable phenomena nothing in macbeth essay the records of religious self-delusion can appear improbable. #9;The Mormons arose in the midst of the great [258] Republic, which, though comparatively insignificant, at that time, in letter for lab technician assistant territory as in the number of its citizens, was (as we know from the fragments of the speeches of its orators which have come down to gcse macbeth essay us) no less remarkable for the native intelligence of its population than for the wide extent of their information, owing to public and citizenship statewide essay contest 2012 the activity of their publishers in diffusing all that they could invent, beg, borrow, or steal. Gcse Essay? Nor were they less noted for their perfect freedom from all restraints in thought, or speech, or deed; except, to be sure, the beneficent and wise influence of the way to a essay majority, exerted, in case of need, through an institution known as tarring and feathering, the exact nature of which is now disputed.

#9;There is gcse essay a complete consensus of school home testimony that the founder of macbeth Mormonism, one Joseph Smith, was a low-minded, ignorant scamp, and that he stole the Scriptures which he propounded; not being clever enough to forge even such contemptible stuff as they contain. Nevertheless he must have been a man of some force of character, for templates canada, a considerable number of disciples soon gathered about him. In spite of repeated outbursts of popular hatred and violence#150;during one of which persecutions Smith was brutally murdered#150;the Mormon body steadily increased, and became a flourishing community. Macbeth Essay? But the Mormon practices being objectionable to the majority, they were, more than once, without any pretence of law, but by force of riot, arson, and [259] murder, driven away from the land they had occupied. Harried by these persecutions, the Mormon body eventually committed itself to the tender mercies of education statewide essay contest 2012 a desert as barren as that of Sinai; and after terrible sufferings and privations, reached the Oasis of Utah. Here it grew and flourished, sending out missionaries to, and receiving converts from, all parts of Europe, sometimes to the number of gcse 10,000 in a year; until, in 1880, the rich and flourishing community numbered 110,000 souls in Utah alone, while there were probably 30,000 or 40,000 scattered abroad elsewhere. In the whole history of religions there is no more remarkable example of the power of faith; and, in this case, the founder of that faith was indubitably a most despicable creature.

It is interesting to observe that the course taken by the great Republic and its citizens runs exactly parallel with that taken by the Roman Empire and its citizens towards the early Christians, except that the Romans had a certain legal excuse for their acts of violence, inasmuch as the Christian sodalitia were not licensed, and consequently were, ipso facto, illegal assemblages. Until, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the United States legislature decreed the illegality of polygamy, the Mormons were wholly within the law. #9;Nothing can present a greater contrast to all this than the history of the Positivists. This sect arose much about the same time as that of the [260] Mormons, in the upper and most instructed stratum of the quick-witted, sceptical population of our second home Paris. The founder, Auguste Comte, was a teacher of mathematics, but of no eminence in that department of gcse macbeth essay knowledge, and with nothing but an amateur's acquaintance with physical, chemical, and quoting biological science. His works are repulsive, on account of the dull diffuseness of their style, and gcse a certain air, as of a superior person, which characterises them; but nevertheless they contain good things here and there. It would take too much space to reproduce in detail a system which proposes to assistant regulate all human life by the promulgation of a Gentile Leviticus.

Suffice it to say, that M. Comte may be described as a syncretic, who, like the gcse Gnostics of early Church history, attempted to school our second essay combine the substance of imperfectly comprehended contemporary science with the form of essay Roman Christianity. It may be that this is the reason why his disciples were so very angry with some obscure people called Agnostics, whose views, if we may judge by the account left in the works of a great Positivist controversial writer, were very absurd. #9;To put the matter briefly, M. Comte, finding Christianity and Science at daggers drawn, seems to have said to Science, You find Christianity rotten at the core, do you? Well, I will scoop out the inside of it. Quoting An Essay Mla Format? And to Romanism: You find Science mere dry light#150;cold and bare. [261] Well, I will put your shell over it, and so, as schoolboys make a spectre out of a turnip and a tallow candle, behold the new religion of macbeth essay Humanity complete! #9;Unfortunately neither the Romanists, nor the people who were something more than amateurs in science, could be got to worship M. Comte's new idol properly.

In the native country of Positivism, one distinguished man of cover technician assistant letters and one of science, for a time, helped to make up a roomful of the faithful, but their love soon grew cold. In England, on the other hand, there appears to be little doubt that, in the ninth decade of the century, the multitude of disciples reached the grand total of several score. They had the advantage of the advocacy of one or two most eloquent and essay learned apostles, and, at any rate, the sympathy of several persons of traditions essay light and leading; and, if they were not seen, they were heard, all over the world. On the other hand, as a sect, they laboured under the essay prodigious disadvantage of being refined, estimable people, living in the midst of the worn-out civilisation of the essay old world; where any one who had tried to persecute them, as the gcse macbeth essay Mormons were persecuted, would have been instantly hanged. But the an essay majority never dreamed of persecuting them; on the contrary, they were rather given to scold and gcse macbeth otherwise try the cover letter assistant patience of the majority. #9;The history of these sects in the closing years [262] of the century is highly instructive. Mormonism . . . . #9;But I find I have suddenly slipped off Mr.

Harrison's tripod, which I had borrowed for the occasion. The fact is, I am not equal to the prophetical business, and ought not to have undertaken it. #9;[It did not occur to me, while writing the latter part of this essay, that it could be needful to disclaim the intention of putting the religious system of Comte on a level with Mormonism. And I was unaware of the fact that Mr. Harrison rejects the greater part of the Positivist Religion, as taught by Comte. Gcse Essay? I have, therefore, erased one or two passages, which implied his adherence to the Religion of best way to conclude a essay Humanity as developed by Comte, 1893.] 1 See the Official Report of the Church Congress held at Manchester, October 1888, pp. Gcse? 253, 254.

2 [In this place and in the eleventh essay, there are references to the late Archbishop of York which are of no importance to best way to my main argument, and which I have expunged because I desire to obliterate the traces of a temporary misunderstanding with a man of rare ability, candour, and wit, for gcse macbeth, whom I entertained a great liking and no less respect. I rejoice to think now of the canada (then) Bishop's cordial hail the first time we met after our little skirmish, Well, is it to be peace or war? I replied, A little of both. But there was only gcse, peace when we parted, and ever after. 3 Dr. Wace tells us, It may be asked how far we can rely on the accounts we possess of plan our Lord's teachings on these subjects. And he seems to think the question appropriately answered by the assertion that it ought to essay be regarded as settled by letter technician assistant, M. Renan's practical surrender of the gcse adverse case. I thought I knew M. Renan's works pretty well, but I have contrived to miss this practical (I wish Dr. Wace had defined the scope of that useful adjective) surrender. Public Education And Citizenship Essay Contest 2012? However, as Dr.

Wace can find no difficulty in gcse macbeth pointing out the passage of M. Renan's writings, by which he feels justified in education and citizenship essay contest 2012 making his statement, I shall wait for macbeth, further enlightenment, contenting myself, for public and citizenship contest 2012, the present, with remarking that if M. Renan were to retract and do penance in Notre Dame to-morrow for macbeth, any contributions to Biblical criticism that may be specially his property, the main results of that criticism, as they are set forth in the works of Strauss, Baur, Reuss, and Volkmar, for example, would not be sensibly affected. 4 [See De Gobineau, La Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale; and the recently published work of letter Mr. E. Macbeth Essay? G. Browne, The Episode of the Bab. ] 5 Here, as always the a essay revised version is gcse macbeth essay cited. 6 Does any one really mean to way to a essay say that there is any internal or external criterion by which the reader of a biblical statement, in which scientific matter is contained, is enabled to judge whether it is to be taken au sérieux or not? Is the account of the essay Deluge, accepted as true in the New Testament, less precise and and citizenship essay contest specific than that of the call of Abraham, also accepted as true therein? By what mark does the story of the feedings with manna in the wilderness, which involves some very curious scientific problems, show that it is gcse meant merely for edification, while the best way to conclude story of the inscription of the Law on stone by the hand of essay Jahveh is literally true? If the story of the Fall is not the true record of an historical occurrence, what becomes of Pauline theology?

Yet the story of the Fall as directly conflicts with probability, and is as devoid of trustworthy evidence as that of the Creation or that of the Deluge, with which it forms an harmoniously legendary series. 7 See, for an admirable discussion of the whole subject, Dr. Abbott's article on the Gospels in a essay the Encyclopædia Britannica; and the remarkable monograph by Professor Volkmar, Jesus Nazarenus und die erste christliche Zeit (1882). Gcse Essay? Whether we agree with the letter assistant conclusions of these writers or not, the method of critical investigation which they adopt is unimpeachable. 8 Notwithstanding the hard words shot at me from behind the hedge of anonymity by a writer in a recent number of the Quarterly Review, I repeat, without the gcse essay slightest fear of traditions essay refutation, that the four Gospels, as they have come to us, are the work of unknown writers.

9 Their arguments, in the long run, are always reducible to one form. Otherwise trustworthy witnesses affirm that such and such events took place. These events are inexplicable, except the agency of spirits is admitted. Therefore spirits were the cause of the phenomena. Macbeth? And the heads of the reply are always the same. Remember Goethe's aphorism: Alles factische ist schon Theorie. Business Plan Templates Canada? Trustworthy witnesses are constantly deceived, or deceive themselves, in macbeth their interpretation of education and citizenship statewide essay contest 2012 sensible phenomena.

No one can prove that the gcse macbeth essay sensible phenomena, in these cases, could be caused only by the agency of spirits: and there is school our second home abundant ground for believing that they may be produced in other ways. Therefore, the utmost that can be reasonably asked for, on the evidence as it stands, is gcse macbeth suspension of judgment. And, on the necessity for even that suspension, reasonable men may differ, according to their views of probability. 10 Yet I must somehow have laid hold of the pith of the matter, for, many years afterwards, when Dean Mansel's Bampton Lectures were published, it seemed to me I already knew all that this eminently agnostic thinker had to plan templates canada tell me. 11 Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Edit. Hartenstein, p. 256. 12 Report of the Church Congress, Manchester, 1888, p. 252. 13 Fortnightly Review, Jan. Essay? 1889.

Preface and Table of Contents to Volume V, Science and cover for lab Christian Tradition, of Huxley's Collected Essays.