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atkins essay Subscribe to this newsletter at www.drmcdougall.com. Essay. The Atkins Scientific Research. – Deceit and Disappointment. During the Great Nutrition Debate held February 24, 2000, by the United States Department of Agriculture in Washington D.C., Dr. Robert Atkins, founder of the world’s most famous low-carbohydrate diet plan, was challenged for his lack of medical research to support his claims, especially about the benefits of his high-fat, high-cholesterol diet for heart disease. Dr. Atkins responded, “And I haven't been able to fund the study.” Dr. Keith-Thomas Ayoob, associate professor of nutrition at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York continued his cross examination, “Excuse me. Excuse me. Thesis Relations. Ten million books in essay, print, and you can't fund the study?” Dr. Essay On Caged Bird. Atkins responded, “Now I can, and I will be the first doctor to essay on tiranga dig into the picture of dorian critical essays his own pocket to essay do a study…” And he made true on video games paper his promise and since has funded sufficient research to persuade doctors, media personalities (like Neal Cavuto of Fox News Channel), and essay as many as 15% of the population of the USA, to believe that eating pork rinds, fried cheese, and lobster dripping in butter is good for body, heart, and soul – and that his previous 35 years of diet claims were right all along. Dr. and Mrs.
Atkins established the gray critical Dr. Robert C. Atkins Foundation in essay, 1999, and thus far have endowed it with $3 million in nike essay, grants – furthermore, the organization that bears their name, Atkins Nutritionals Inc., has a yearly income of $100 million; therefore, money for essay, supportive research should be no barrier. Of Dorian Gray Critical. Over the past three years several published studies, laced with sufficient bites of truth to influence the essay practice of on relationship between power medicine, have indeed been published. The consequences have been so profound that the Atkins Diet is now taught to on tiranga medical students as part of their first year medical curriculum at between power politics, the New York Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn. 25 These impressionable students learn that replacing potatoes with beefsteak protects against the development of heart disease and that the diet is a safe and effective solution to America’s obesity epidemic. 25 The time has come for a thorough review of this research and on tiranga a challenge to those who would distort the truth, often at nursing papers, the expense of your health. The Science behind Atkins.
I have spared no effort to locate and carefully read the scientific papers that have been published about the Atkins Diet. Essay On Tiranga. The ones that have received most public attention are those directly comparing the Atkins Diet to a “low-fat” diet. Of the nine research papers 1-9 I was able to obtain and review that directly compare the Atkins Diet with a “low-fat” diet, four 4,6-8 were funded by the Robert C. Atkins Foundation. Other research papers funded by the picture of dorian gray the Atkins Foundation were also located and reviewed; 10-12 as were several others on this topic with independent financial support. 13-20 The funding for the third issue of the journal of essay on tiranga Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders was not identified, but the entire edition was dedicated to the memory of Robert Atkins, MD – and by no coincidence, the articles within were highly supportive of his low-carbohydrate diet. 21-32 There were a few abstracts (a brief written paragraph about an nike essay, unpublished study) and several related research papers in obscure journals that I could not obtain – I doubt that these would have altered my findings. Essay On Tiranga. Ten Conclusions I Reached after Reviewing the Scientific Research Published on the Atkins Diet: 1) Use of the Term “Low-fat” in the Comparisons Is Dishonest.
Researchers have deceived the public by claiming they have compared the Atkins Diet with a “low-fat” diet. Bird By Maya. The truth is all of their comparisons are with a calorie-restricted (portion-controlled) version of the essay typical American diet, containing approximately 30% of the calories as fat. 1-9 The “dieting” (calorie-restricted, portion-controlled) approach to weight loss has a consistent history of failure; therefore, choosing this kind of diet for comparison greatly increases the odds that the Atkins Diet will appear favorable. 2) Long-Term Weight Loss Is Insignificant. Nike Essay. Over the essay on tiranga short-term (weeks), people on the Atkins Diet lose more weight than on nursing research the calorie-restricted diet, but this benefit does not last. After one year, the difference in weight lost between those following the Atkins Diet and those on the calorie-restricted diet was found to be statistically insignificant by the only essay, two studies performed for on caged bird, this period of time. On Tiranga. 1,2. 3) A Real Low-Fat Diet Is Far More Effective. Direct comparison of a truly low-fat diet (10% or less of the calories from nursing critique fat) with the Atkins approach is long overdue. Essay On Tiranga. Available evidence supports superior benefits with a low-fat diet.
33-34 A low-fat diet (and exercise) is the research only approach found to provide long-term successful weight loss (an average of on tiranga more than 70 pounds of between and international relations weight lost per on tiranga person and maintained for more than 6 years, based on a population of over 4,000 people). 35-37. 4) The “Metabolic Advantage” Is Nothing to Brag About. Over the short-term, the Atkins Diet will cause more weight loss, for of dorian gray critical, the same number of calories consumed, as a calorie-restricted diet. This is referred to as the “metabolic advantage” of the low-carbohydrate diet. When the body is burdened with the wrong fuel (a diet of fat and essay protein, and insufficient carbohydrate) it must make changes that are metabolically expensive, thus burning extra calories. 27 Better stated, the nursing research papers burden of the Atkins Diet requires the body to make adaptations originally intended for survival; in on tiranga, order to stay alive under this adversity. 5) The Atkins Diet Worsens Some Important Risk Factors for Heart Disease. The Atkins Diet consistently raises total and “bad “LDL-cholesterol, whereas, a calorie-restricted (30% fat) diet lowers these important predictors of future heart trouble. 1,2,18 A truly low-fat diet (10% or less of calories from fat) is even more effective at essay by maya, reducing these risk factors than the essay on tiranga 30% fat diets used for these comparisons.
38-41. 6) The Atkins Diet Improves Some Less Important Risk Factors for Heart Disease. The Atkins Diet lowers triglycerides (a less important risk factor), but so does a healthfully designed low-fat diet. “Good” HDL-cholesterol is increased 1,2,4,7,8 on the Atkins Diet, but homocysteine (which predicts more heart disease) is also increased. 17 When it comes to “heart health,” triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol values are of thesis on relationship between and international relations questionable importance and essay on tiranga far less significant than total- and LDL-cholesterol. 42,43 But to read the of dorian research paid for by Atkins you would think otherwise. 4,6-8. 7) Atkins Is Harder to essay Follow Long-term.
Dropout rates are very high with both the Atkins and calorie-restricted diets, because both programs are very hard to nike essay follow. The Atkins Diet causes people to essay on tiranga become “sick” and the calorie-restricted diet causes them to nursing papers suffer the essay pains of hunger. When comparing these two unpleasant living conditions, the on caged by maya authors of the most recent one-year study published in essay, the Annals of Internal Medicine raised “the possibility that the Atkins Diet was less sustainable.” 2 In other words, constant sickness is more difficult to endure than the everyday pains of hunger. 8) Exercise Is Not an Easy Addition to angelou the Atkins Program. Exercise is not a part of most of the research studies performed. 1-9 On a low-carbohydrate diet people are too fatigued to essay on tiranga participate in increased physical activity. 9) Adverse Effects Are Common, Expected, and Sometimes Serious on Atkins. Most of the people following the essay angelou Atkins Diet suffer adverse effects like constipation, fatigue, headaches, muscle cramps, diarrhea, and bad breath.
Predictors of future health problems, such as elevated cholesterol, BUN, uric acid, and free fatty acids, are found with this diet. 1-20 Furthermore, people have been reported to suffer from serious complications, such as dehydration, cardiac arrhythmias, kidney damage, kidney stones, liver, brain, and eye damage and also death from following high protein and ketogenic diets. On Tiranga. 2,4,14,18,44-55. 10) Atkins Is Not Accepted by the Scientific Community – for Good Reasons. Nike Essay. Major health organizations, for essay on tiranga, example, the on caged bird by maya American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, warn the public that the essay kinds of foods encouraged by the Atkins Diet will increase their risk of health problems. 44. Your Future. For the Curious Reader Further Explanation. and Support of essay My Findings Follows. Comparing Atkins with a “Low-fat” Diet is Deceptive. Between Power And International Relations. All of the papers purporting the comparison of the on tiranga Atkins Diet with a “low-fat” diet have deceived the nike essay public – and their authors must have known better. 1,3-9 The “low-fat” diet used is actually approximately 30% of the calories from fat in essay, all cases.
Consider, the average American eats a diet with 32% to 38% of research papers calories coming from essay on tiranga fat. In each case the diet that is essay on caged bird by maya angelou, labeled “low-fat” is in truth the conventional, always-known-to-fail, calorie-restricted diet. In one of the major studies, 3 before the diet began the participants’ diets were 33% fat; the goal was to on tiranga reduce to 30% fat – but in the end their “low-fat” diets actually contained 33% of the calories as fat (the same as before they started) – so where is the low-fat part of the comparison alleged by the title of the on relationship power politics article? – “A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity.” For the short-term (6 to 24 weeks) the Atkins approach betters the calorie-restricted diet by 4 to 12 pounds (2 to 5.5 Kg). 4 Some of this early weight loss (up to 8 pounds) reflects water loss (from diuresis and loss of glycogen stores). However, at 12 months, research financed independent of Atkins has found the difference in weight loss to essay be insignificant (2.1 Kg or less). 1,2 The reason people fail to continue to lose weight on the Atkins Diet is primarily because of lack of adherence to the diet. Interestingly, researchers from one of the long-term studies reported those on the calorie-restricted diet who dropped out nike essay continued to lose the same amount of weight as those who stayed in the study, whereas those in the Atkins group were less likely to lose weight if they dropped out. Essay On Tiranga. This finding, along with the weight gains that were seen between 6 and research paper 12 months on the Atkins Diet led researchers to raise the possibility that the Atkins Diet was less sustainable (than the portion controlled, calorie-restricted diet).
2 (I believe the on tiranga reason Dr. Essay Bird By Maya. Atkins, himself was so grossly overweight was, not because of the lack of effectiveness of a ketogenic diet, but because even he could not follow his own diet for long.) The Atkins Diet is inherently difficult to stick with because of the underlying mechanism for essay on tiranga, weight loss – the diet makes people sick. Followers of this kind of paper diet complain of reduced appetite, nausea, and fatigue – all symptoms of illness, which result in a natural reduction in daily food intake – which includes consuming fewer calories. You can only stay sick for so long before you long for relief and return to eating more carbohydrates and less fat. Essay On Tiranga. A Low-fat Diet Solves the thesis on relationship politics and international relations Obesity Epidemic. A low-fat diet as used by Kempner (the Rice Diet), Pritikin, Ornish, McDougall, and Barnard is based on plant foods and contains 10% or less of the calories from fats of all kinds.
Except for the Kempner Diet, all of essay on tiranga these truly low-fat diets emphasize unrefined foods consumed in unlimited amounts (ad libitum). Nike Essay. A recent review of 28 trials using lower-fat, higher-carbohydrate diets found a 10% reduction in essay on tiranga, fat resulted in a 6.3 pound (2.88 Kg) weight loss sustained over 6 months. 56 When the researchers in thesis, another study allowed the dieters to eat as much as they wanted of a diet containing 18% fat, along with exercise, the results were: an 11 pound (4.8 Kg) weight loss, and without exercise, the same diet resulted in a 7 pound (3.2 Kg) weight loss, over essay, 12 weeks. 57 Another study of sixty-four healthy post-menopausal women on a low-fat diet (11% fat) for 8 months found an average 13 pound (6 Kg) weight loss. 58 The composition of these low-fat diets reflect the diets of people living in rural communities in Africa, the nursing research papers Middle East, and the Far East – which means a starch-based diet followed by millions of people living without obesity, type-2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and the cancers common to Western societies. 59. The most relevant information on successful weight loss comes from the National Weight Control Registry . 35-37 Successful dieters have been tracked by on tiranga this study since 1993. The registry is research critique papers, simply a database of people successful at maintaining a weight loss of at least 30 lbs. (13.6 kg) for at least one year. However, the average registrant has lost 70 pounds (32 kg) and essay kept it off for 6 years. To date, there are over violent video games research, 4,000 people, from all over on tiranga, the United States, enrolled in the National Weight Control Registry.
On average, registrants report consuming about 1400 kcal/day (24 percent calories from fat) and expending about 400 calories/day in physical exercise. Approximately 80% of the registrants eat less than 30% fat, and 35% eat less than 20% fat. Essay On Caged Bird. Although they may have lost their initial weight by a variety of methods, including liquid protein diets, on their own, or through an organized program, all are currently maintaining their weight losses by eating low-energy, low-fat diets and engaging in regular physical activity. About 50 percent of essay on tiranga participants lost weight on their own without any type of formal program or help. The “Metabolic Advantage” of the Atkins Diet. The rationale for the Atkins Diet is that severe carbohydrate restriction will result in ketosis which promotes lipid oxidation (fat loss), satiety (satisfaction of appetite), and increased energy expenditure. Supporters of the Atkins low-carbohydrate Diet promote this approach as a faster, more efficient way to lose weight than other diets. They believe there is an increased weight loss per calorie compared to other similar diets, higher in carbohydrate. Nursing. They refer to this phenomenon as the “metabolic advantage.” 27 The increase in on tiranga, energy loss is essay, due to inefficiency in body metabolism caused by the low-carbohydrate diet. For example, the human body on essay a very low-carbohydrate diet has to expend energy to on caged angelou make carbohydrate for tissues that absolutely require glucose, like the brain and red blood cells (through the essay process of gluconeogenesis, glucose is synthesized from protein) – this means extra calories are expended.
This is only one of many calorie-requiring adaptions to survive that occur when the body is forced to video games research paper live without sufficient carbohydrate. I believe that following the Atkins Diet does cause the body to become inefficient and to expend more calories – but this transformation is not something to brag about. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway used naturally during times of duress when people are not eating, because of starvation or sickness. Since the brain, red blood cells, and essay a few other tissues must have carbohydrate to function, the body must call upon this mechanism to survive. If increasing calorie expenditure by taxing the body’s survival mechanisms were truly the proper direction for the diet industry to head, then might not the next generation of weight loss programs include infecting people with dysentery, malaria or HIV? There is no question that the short-term (dysentery and malaria) and long-term (HIV) weight losses will outstrip even the sickness-associated-weight-loss caused by Atkins. However, not all studies find this “metabolic advantage” and nike essay the recent 24-week study published in the Annals of essay Internal Medicine (paid for by the Robert C. Atkins Foundation) found the percentage of total weight lost that was from fat over 24 weeks was similar in the Atkins and “low-fat,” calorie-restricted, diet groups.
4. Flawed Research Used to Promote the “Metabolic Advantage” – And They Know Better. Promoters of the concept of the essay about husband “metabolic advantage” of the Atkins Diet are so desperate to essay make their point that they will use obviously bogus research, and describe this work as the “most striking” evidence. 27 This spectacular evidence for the “metabolic advantage,” collected by Stephen Sondike, was published in 2003 in nike essay, the journal Pediatrics . 9. The work by Sondike is a 12-week, randomized, controlled study of 39 children, aged 12 to 18, placed on either the Atkins Diet or “low-fat” (actually 30% fat) diet. 9 The results: those on the Atkins Diet lost 12.8 pounds (5.8 Kg) more than those on the “low-fat diet,” while consuming many more calories each day on the Atkins Diet. Essay. Calculated from the difference in daily calories – 1830 on Atkins minus 1100 on “low-fat” – there would have been a 730 calorie per day “metabolic advantage” if both groups had lost same amount of weight. However, both groups did not lose the same weight – the Atkins people actually lost 12.8 pounds more than the “low-fat” group – so these calories must be accounted for on relationship between power and international relations, also. These 12.8 pounds of essay on tiranga weight loss mean an additional deficit of 532 calories per day (12.8 pounds x 3500 calories/pound of fat / 84 days = 532 calories per violent research day). Adding these two differences together (730 plus 532 calories) would mean that the essay Atkins Diet in essay on caged, this study had a “metabolic advantage” of 1262 calories a day – that’s more calories than the children on the “low-fat” diet were said to eat daily. This is obviously impossible – and any one interested in honest research would know that, and completely discount these findings. Worse than deceiving the essay public, this flawed study is shamelessly used to instruct medical students on thesis power the benefits of the Atkins Diet.
25. The Big Lie: Eating Steak Cuts Your Risk of Heart Disease (That’s What They Tell Medical Students 25 and the Public). The fact is, eating fat and cholesterol increases your risk of dying of heart disease, strokes and other forms of atherosclerosis (kidney failure and peripheral vascular diseases) – and all major health organizations and almost all doctors and essay on tiranga scientists agree. 44 All well-designed studies show the total cholesterol and research critique papers “bad” LDL cholesterol both increase with the Atkins Diet. 1,2,18 The May 2004 study, financed by on tiranga Atkins and published in research, the Annals of Internal Medicine, described two participants in the low-carbohydrate diet group (Atkins) who dropped out of the study because of concerns about elevated serum lipid levels. Essay. 4 In one participant, the LDL-cholesterol level increased from 184 mg/dl (4.75 mmol/l) to 283 mg/dl (7.31 mmol/l) in 3 months. Research Critique. Another participant’s LDL-cholesterol level went from 182 mg/dl (4.70 mmol/l ) to essay on tiranga 219 mg/dl (5.66 mmol/l) in 4 weeks. Overall, LDL-cholesterol increased by more than 10% in 30% of the gray essays people on the low-carbohydrate diet. 4 (Ideally, LDL-cholesterol should be well below 100 mg/dl, and probably, even below 80 mg/dl for people concerned about heart disease.) The spin Atkins promoters use to essay on tiranga minimize the impact of these negative findings is to point out the on relationship and international relations Atkins Diet lowers triglycerides, raises “good” HDL-cholesterol, and increases the amount of “less dense” LDL-cholesterol. Both triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol are considered of much less importance than total- and LDL-cholesterol in predicting the future risk of artery disease. For example, in the well-respected studies on essay on tiranga the reversal of heart disease by Dr.
Dean Ornish, participants showed reversal on his very-low fat diet, while at the same time their triglycerides increased and their HDL-cholesterol levels decreased. 42 In the most important study yet published on the reversal of artery disease using cholesterol-lowering medications (like Lipitor), researchers found that “good” HDL-cholesterol played no role in predicting the condition of the essay about future husband arteries (growth of plaques). 43. Their final effort to right the heart-disease-promoting wrongs of the Atkins Diet is to essay focus on the size of LDL-cholesterol. Some studies show the larger the LDL-cholesterol particles in the blood, the less the risk of heart disease in a population. The size of LDL-cholesterol is tied directly to both triglycerides and papers HDL-cholesterol. If you agree with me that these two values are of little value in predicting the effects of on tiranga diet on real-life artery disease, then the LDL-cholesterol particle size cannot be the nike essay saving grace for the Atkins Diet. 60 Furthermore, a very low-fat diet improves the LDL-particle size without the adverse consequences on essay on tiranga blood cholesterol caused by the Atkins Diet. 39. “The Atkins Diet Does Not Increase Heart Disease” – So They Say. Studies comparing the effects of the Atkins Diet and a relatively high-cholesterol, 30% fat, calorie-restricted diet show, on nike essay average, the Atkins Diet increases total cholesterol by about 2%, and LDL-cholesterol by 3% -- whereas, the “low-fat” diet lowers these values by 6 % and 9%, respectively. You may wonder why doubling the saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet by essay on tiranga switching to Atkins doesn’t make even a worse impact on the blood lipids (cholesterol).
There are two important reasons for these unexpected findings. First, the body has tremendous capacity to adapt to the picture of dorian extraordinary living conditions in order to survive. When the fat intake becomes extreme, as it does with the Atkins Diet, the excess fat interferes with the intestinal absorption of cholesterol in some, but not all, individuals. Essay On Tiranga. 61 Also, the first 200 to on caged by maya angelou 400 mg of cholesterol consumed completely saturates the capacity of the gut to absorb cholesterol, so any additional is left behind in the intestine, to essay on tiranga be excreted. 62 When subjects are already consuming 30% fat, and 300 mg to 500 mg of cholesterol, as they are on their pre-Atkins, typical American diet, then little additional impact is caused by thesis on relationship power politics and international relations further increases when switching to the Atkins Diet. On Tiranga. Obviously, meaningful information cannot be gained about the violent video games research paper true impact of the essay Atkins Diet on the body by comparing it with a calorie-reduced version of a diet that kills more than two-thirds of its followers prematurely in papers, the first place, the essay rich Western diet. Second, the Atkins Diet works by making people sick. As mentioned above, followers of this kind of diet complain of reduced appetite, nausea, and fatigue – all symptoms of illness, which result in a natural reduction in daily food intake.
Expected consequences of eating smaller amounts of red meat, poultry, fish, and cheese – basic components of these low-carbohydrate diets – are that people consume less saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, animal protein, and fewer calories. Signs of improved health seem to appear because risk factors, like cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, glucose, blood pressure, and body weight decrease – and the patient is declared healthier. Thesis On Relationship Power And International Relations. Not necessarily so. Similar benefits, for similar reasons, are seen when patients are placed on cancer chemotherapy – and doctors don’t brag about these results. Essay On Tiranga. 63. Confirmation of this “semi-starvation” mechanism of the thesis on relationship Atkins Diet for improved risk factors comes from the results of on tiranga research on young people with seizure disorders, treated with a ketogenic diet (like Atkins), who are encouraged to eat sufficient calories to maintain their body weight. Violent Video Games Research. Under these circumstances, all risk factors – including cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and essay triglycerides – increase dramatically (and HDL-cholesterol decreases). 14. In simplest terms, low-carbohydrate diets exaggerate consumption of the the picture of dorian gray critical essays unhealthiest components of the essay Western diet (animal protein and essay your future husband fat) to a level that makes people sufficiently ill to lose their desire to eat – and expected changes follow. The alternative is to encourage people to eat foods that promote both ideal body weight and health – those from a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. 33,34.
Finally, this entire subject of risk factors must be placed in proper perspective. Risk factors, like the level of essay cholesterol in the blood, are not diseases, but rather bits of information that help to foretell one’s future health. No one dies of high-cholesterol – rather, they die of diseased arteries – but because the violent games paper same foods that raise cholesterol also damage the arteries, the two are commonly associated. Therefore, because this is an association, rather than a cause-and-effect relationship, it is on tiranga, important to realize that improving the values of risk factors may not necessarily translate into on caged angelou improved health – this is essay on tiranga, obviously true if the means for changing these values is inherently unhealthy, like feeding a diet of the picture of dorian pork rinds, fried hamburger patties, and lobster dripping in butter to people; i.e. the Atkins Diet. Essay On Tiranga. Real Damage from about future husband Atkins Would Be Seen with Honest Comparisons.
To determine the true impact of the Atkins Diet on blood cholesterol, a comparison must be made with a truly low-fat (10% or less), no-cholesterol diet. Two studies of people following very low-cholesterol diets suggest what will be found: When subjects following a low-cholesterol diet (97 mg/day) were fed one egg a day (an additional 321 mg of cholesterol) their “bad” LDL-cholesterol increased by 12%. Essay On Tiranga. 64 By comparison, the egg industry has funded numerous studies to “prove” eating eggs does not raise cholesterol – they accomplish this by feeding eggs to subjects whose intestines are already fully saturated with cholesterol from their regular diet – so they are able to absorb little more. 65. About Husband. A group of Tarahumara Indians from Northern Mexico was switched from their traditional diet of corn, beans, squash and other vegetables (2700 calories, 16% fat and trace cholesterol) to an American diet (4100 calories, 44% fat, and 1020 mg cholesterol) for five weeks. 66 These changes were seen in their blood: Total cholesterol increased 31% (121 to 159 mg/dl) LDL-cholesterol increased by 39% (72 to 100 mg/dl) HDL-cholesterol increased by 31% (32 to 42 mg/dl) Triglycerides increased by 18% (91 to 108 mg/dl) (Note that eating an on tiranga, unhealthy diet with more fat and cholesterol increases all fractions of cholesterol, including “good” HDL-cholesterol.) Long-term benefits of a low-fat diet have been seen with the Ornish and Pritikin groups. Between Power Politics And International Relations. 40,41,67 Six month results from the very low-fat diet used by Dr. Ornish found significantly greater reductions in on tiranga, anginal (chest pain) frequency, body weight, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose, than in a cardiac rehabilitation group using the standard Heart Association (30% fat) diet.
40. Results of a study of bird by maya angelou 4587 adults who attended a 3-week residential Pritikin Program using a very low-fat diet, showed total cholesterol was reduced by 23% (234 to essay 180 mg/dl) and violent video LDL-cholesterol was reduced by 23% (151 to 116 mg/dl). 41 Follow-up studies for 18 months on a small group of these people showed that, in most cases, continued compliance with the program maintained total cholesterol values well below 200 mg/dl. The Atkins Diet: Short-term Weight Loss – While Sacrificing Health. Essay. The research says the Atkins Diet makes people sick. The most recent study paid for by the Robert C. Atkins Foundation found three of the violent paper 59 participants in essay, the Atkins group dropped out; 2 because of a rise in LDL-cholesterol and one because of shakiness and uneasiness. 4 Many troublesome problems occurred frequently in the low-carbohydrate diet (Atkins) group: 4. Symptom (% of research papers patients complaining) Muscle cramps (35%) General weakness (25%) One participant sought medical attention for constipation, but had no complications.
One 53-year-old man with a family history of early heart disease developed chest pain near the end of the study, and coronary heart disease was subsequently diagnosed. 4 In the Samaha study (not financed by Atkins) one patient was hospitalized with chest pain and one patient died while on the low-carbohydrate, Atkins Diet. 3. Other reported adverse effects of on tiranga a low-carbohydrate/ketogenic diet include: * Increased fat and cholesterol increases the blood cholesterol and risk of thesis power and international relations heart attacks. 44. Essay On Tiranga. * Increased fat increases the long-term risk of obesity. 45. * Increased dietary fat has been linked to various common cancers. 46. * Increased dietary protein and acid increases the risk of kidney stones and osteoporosis. 47,48. * Free fatty acids, which increase the gray critical essays risk of heart (cardiac) arrhythmias double. 18.
Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed on the diet. 18. * Uric acid, creatinine and BUN increase, which reflect an increased workload on the kidneys and a prediction of future kidney failure. 2. * Patients complain of fatigue, thirst, lassitude, bad taste, and foul breath. 18. * Increased depression, anger, confusion, fatigue and decreased vigor. Essay. 49-51. Essay By Maya. * Neuropsychological tests show worsening performance when people are on a ketogenic diet (like Atkins). 52. * Damage to on tiranga the eyes (optic neuropathy) has been seen with a ketogenic diet. 53. Special Problems for Children (The diet is recommended for children by Atkins and husband others. 9,20 ) * Long-term adherence to a low-carb (ketogenic) diet may cause permanent damage to the developing brain.
54. * Short-term effects include hypoglycemia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and refusal to eat; long-term effects include irritability, lethargy, kidney stones, acidosis, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, decreased amino acids, growth, and hypercholesterolemia. 14. * Serious adverse events were experienced by five children (10% of the group): severe hypoproteinemia, lipemia (excess triglycerides in the blood), and hemolytic anemia, Fanconi's renal tubular acidosis; and two children manifested marked increases in liver function tests. 55. * Long-standing ketosis has been associated with myocardial dysfunction (heart problems) in children. 56 Of twenty patients on the ketogenic diet, 3 had EKG abnormalities (prolonged QT interval) and three patients had evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement. In one patient with severe dilated cardiomyopathy and EKG abnormalities, these problems normalized when the essay diet was discontinued. 56. Also understand that the foods recommended on a low-carbohydrate diet are primarily meat, poultry, fish, and cheeses. Over 90% of the environmental chemicals, such as DDT, dioxin, and essay your future husband PCB – substances known to cause cancer and damage to essay your nervous system – enter your body through these foods (not plant-foods). Also realize that these same animal foods carry microbes known to infect people, including bovine leukemia viruses, the “mad-cow” agent, E. coli, salmonella, tuberculosis, and listeria, to name a few well-known threats to the picture essays your health. Essay. You Can Have Weight Control and Health, Too.
The overwhelming popularity of low-carbohydrate diets and the acceptance of supportive scientific research are largely because Atkins is speaking to the choir – people love to hear good news about their bad habits. “Just tell me I will lose weight and avoid heart disease and diabetes by eating more eggs, cheese, lobster, and steak.” But that is not the papers truth and deep down inside even the current followers of Atkins must know this. On Tiranga. The overwhelming evidence clearly condemns the low-carb diet, and this approach should not be used for even short-term weight loss. Don’t despair, there is a meal plan that will allow you good looks and good health – and that is a time-honored diet that most people who have ever walked this earth have consumed – a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet, based on starches with the addition of your future fruits and on tiranga vegetables. Leave the eggs for Easter, the ham for Christmas and the turkey for Thanksgiving – rather than eating these “Atkins delights” every meal, everyday, until you make yourself so sick you lose a little weight – then you quit and you regain your lost fat – just as the two, twelve-month-long studies on the Atkins Diet prove you will do. 1,2. 1) Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, Klein S. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity.
N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2082-90. Nike Essay. 2) Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, Williams M, Gracely EJ, Samaha FF. The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in essay, Severely Obese Adults: One-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial. The Picture Of Dorian Gray Essays. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):778-785. 3) Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, Williams T, Williams M, Gracely EJ, Stern L. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2074-81.
4) Yancy WS Jr, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):769-777. 5) Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D'Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;88(4):1617-23. 6) Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS.
Very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight men. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):880-5. 7) Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Kraemer WJ. An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and essay on tiranga postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. J Nutr. The Picture Gray. 2003 Sep;133(9):2756-61. On Tiranga. 8) Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, DiPasquale C, Roti M, Pumerantz A, Kraemer WJ.
Comparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Apr;23(2):177-84. 9) Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of nike essay a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr. 2003 Mar;142(3):253-8. 10) Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med. 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6.
11) Sharman MJ, Kraemer WJ, Love DM, Avery NG, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Volek JS. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men. J Nutr. 2002 Jul;132(7):1879-85. 12) Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Love DM, Avery NG, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Kraemer WJ. Body composition and on tiranga hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism.
2002 Jul;51(7):864-70. 13) Volek JS, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ. Fasting lipoprotein and the picture of dorian critical postprandial triacylglycerol responses to a low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. Essay On Tiranga. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Jun;19(3):383-91. 14) Kwiterovich PO Jr, Vining EP, Pyzik P, Skolasky R Jr, Freeman JM. Effect of a high-fat ketogenic diet on plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in violent research paper, children. JAMA. 2003 Aug 20;290(7):912-20. Essay On Tiranga. 15) Alford BB, Blankenship AC, Hagen RD.
The effects of on relationship between power and international variations in carbohydrate, protein, and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values, and nutrient intake of adult obese women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990 Apr;90(4):534-40. 16) Gutierrez M, Akhavan M, Jovanovic L, Peterson CM. Essay. Utility of on caged by maya angelou a short-term 25% carbohydrate diet on improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Dec;17(6):595-600. 17) Hays JH, DiSabatino A, Gorman RT, Vincent S, Stillabower ME. Effect of a high saturated fat and on tiranga no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Nov;78(11):1331-6. 18) Larosa JC, Fry AG, Muesing R, Rosing DR. Effects of nursing research critique papers high-protein, low-carbohydrate dieting on essay plasma lipoproteins and body weight. J Am Diet Assoc.
1980 Sep;77(3):264-70. About Your Future Husband. 19) Lean ME, Han TS, Prvan T, Richmond PR, Avenell A. Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in on tiranga, free living women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;51(4):243-8. 20) Willi SM, Oexmann MJ, Wright NM, Collop NA, Key LL Jr. The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities.
Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;101(1 Pt 1):61-7. 21) Dandona P. Editorial. Of Dorian Critical. Metabolic Syndrome and essay Related Disorders. 2003;1:179-179. 22) Freedland E.S. A Tribute to Robert C. Atkins, M.D. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:181-182. 23) Atkins V. The Robert C. Atkins, M.D.
Issue. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:183-184. 24) Aljada A.; Mohanty P.; Dandona P. Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Heart Disease Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Essay On Caged Bird By Maya Angelou. 2003;1:185-188. Essay. 25) Feinman R.D.; Makowske M. On Caged Bird By Maya. Metabolic Syndrome and Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets in essay, the Medical School Biochemistry Curriculum. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:189-197.
26) Bell S.J.; Sears B. A Proposal for a New National Diet: A Low-Glycemic Load Diet with a Unique Macronutrient Composition. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:199-208. 27) Feinman R.D.; Fine E.J. Thermodynamics and Metabolic Advantage of Weight Loss Diets. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.
2003;1:209-219. Thesis On Relationship Between Power Politics Relations. 28) Bailes Jr. J.R.; Strow M.T.; Werthammer J.; McGinnis R.A.; Elitsur Y. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate, Unlimited Calorie Diet on the Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Prospective Controlled Study. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:221-225. 29) Hickey J.T.; Hickey L.; Yancy Jr.
W.S.; Hepburn J.; Westman E.C. Clinical Use of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet to essay Treat the Dyslipidemia of the Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:227-232. About Husband. 30) Vernon M.C.; Mavropoulos J.; Transue M.; Yancy Jr W.S.; Westman E.C. Clinical Experience of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet: Effect on Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2003;1:233-237. 31) Yancy Jr. W.S.; Vernon M.C.; Westman E.C.
A Pilot Trial of essay on tiranga a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Violent Video Research Paper. Metabolic Syndrome and essay Related Disorders. 2003;1:239-243. 32) Dissertations. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Violent Games Research Paper. 2003;1: 245-252. 33) Jequier E, Bray GA.
Low-fat diets are preferred. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:41S-46S. Essay. 34) Astrup A, Astrup A, Buemann B, Flint A, Raben A. Video Research. Low-fat diets and energy balance: how does the evidence stand in essay on tiranga, 2002? Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):299-309. About Your. 35) Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire MT, Hill JO, Seagle H. Persons successful at long-term weight loss and on tiranga maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet.
J Am Diet Assoc. 1998 Apr;98(4):408-13. The Picture Critical. 36) Wing R. Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. Essay. 2001;21:323-41. 37) Wyatt HR, Grunwald OK, Mosca CL, Klem ML, Wing RR, Hill JO (2002). Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research ; 10:78-82. 38) McDougall J, Litzau K, Haver E, Saunders V, Spiller GA.
Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by the picture essays a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet. J Am Coll Nutr. On Tiranga. 1995 Oct;14(5):491-6. 39) Beard CM, Barnard RJ, Robbins DC, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ. Effects of diet and exercise on qualitative and quantitative measures of research critique LDL and its susceptibility to oxidation. Essay On Tiranga. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1996 Feb;16(2):201-7. 40) Aldana SG, Whitmer WR, Greenlaw R, Avins AL, Salberg A, Barnhurst M, Fellingham G, Lipsenthal L. Cardiovascular risk reductions associated with aggressive lifestyle modification and cardiac rehabilitation. Heart Lung.
2003 Nov-Dec;32(6):374-82. 41) Barnard RJ. Effects of life-style modification on serum lipids. Arch Intern Med. 1991 Jul;151(7):1389-94.
42) Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Brown SE, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, Kirkeeide RL, Hogeboom C, Brand RJ. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1998 Dec 16;280(23):2001-7. 43) Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Brown BG, Ganz P, Vogel RA, Crowe T, Howard G, Cooper CJ, Brodie B, Grines CL, DeMaria AN; REVERSAL Investigators. Effect of intensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy on progression of coronary atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Mar 3;291(9):1071-80.
44) St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH; Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Violent Video Paper. Circulation . Essay On Tiranga. 2001 Oct 9;104(15):1869-74. 45) Bray GA, Popkin BM.. Dietary fat intake does affect obesity! Am J Clin Nutr.
1998 Dec;68(6):1157-73. 46) Lichtenstein AH, Kennedy E, Barrier P, Danford D, Ernst ND, Grundy SM, Leveille GA, Van Horn L, Williams CL, Booth SL. Nike Essay. Dietary fat consumption and health. Nutr Rev. 1998 May;56(5 Pt 2):S3-19.
47) Reddy ST. On Tiranga. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. Nike Essay. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Aug;40(2):265-74. 48) Herzberg GZ, Fivush BA, Kinsman SL, Gearhart JP. Urolithiasis associated with the essay ketogenic diet.
J Pediatr. 1990 Nov;117(5):743-5. 49) Horswill CA, Hickner RC, Scott JR, Costill DL, Gould D. Weight loss, dietary carbohydrate modifications, and high intensity, physical performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990 Aug;22(4):470-6. 50) Keith RE, O'Keeffe KA, Blessing DL, Wilson GD. Alterations in dietary carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and mood state in trained female cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991 Feb;23(2):212-6. 51) Filaire E, Maso F, Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Lac G. Food restriction, performance, psychological state and lipid values in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med.
2001 Aug;22(6):454-9. 52) Wing RR, Vazquez JA, Ryan CM. Cognitive effects of ketogenic weight-reducing diets. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995 Nov;19(11):811-6. 53) Hoyt CS, Billson FA.
Optic neuropathy in ketogenic diet. Br J Ophthalmol. 1979 Mar;63(3):191-4. 54) Zhao Q, Stafstrom CE, Fu DD, Hu Y, Holmes GL. Video Games Paper. Detrimental effects of the ketogenic diet on cognitive function in rats. Pediatr Res. 2004 Mar;55(3):498-506.
55) Ballaban-Gil K, Callahan C, O'Dell C, Pappo M, Moshe S, Shinnar S. Complications of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 1998 Jul;39(7):744-8. 56) Best TH, Franz DN, Gilbert DL, Nelson DP, Epstein MR. Essay On Tiranga. Cardiac complications in pediatric patients on the ketogenic diet.
Neurology. 2000 Jun 27;54(12):2328-30. 57) Hays NP, Starling RD, Liu X, Sullivan DH, Trappe TA, Fluckey JD, Evans WJ. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on essay about future body weight, body composition, and essay fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 26;164(2):210-7. Between Power Politics Relations. 58) Mueller-Cunningham WM, Quintana R, Kasim-Karakas SE. An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in on tiranga, weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec;103(12):1600-6. 59) Weisburger J. Eat to violent live, not live to eat.
Nutrition . 2000; 16:767-73. 60) Kenny J. Very-low-fat diets do not necessarily promote small, dense LDL particles. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70:423-25. Essay On Tiranga. 61) Sehayek E, Nath C, Heinemann T, McGee M, Seidman CE, Samuel P, Breslow JL. Of Dorian Gray Critical Essays. U-shape relationship between change in dietary cholesterol absorption and on tiranga plasma lipoprotein responsiveness and evidence for violent research paper, extreme interindividual variation in dietary cholesterol absorption in humans. J Lipid Res. 1998 Dec;39(12):2415-22. On Tiranga. 62) Connor WE, Hodges RE, Bleiler RE.
Effect of dietary cholesterol upon serum lipids in nike essay, man. J Lab Clin Med. 1961 Mar;57:331-42. 63) McDougall J. Effects of essay a low-carbohydrate diet. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Mar;79(3):431.
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Health advantages and disadvantages of weight-reducing diets: a computer analysis and critical review. J Am Coll Nutr. Nursing Research Critique. 2000 Oct;19(5):578-90.
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obeying orders essay The following are the seven steps that you will have to go through during the selection process and some helpful hints on how to essay on tiranga, best approach each step. A final average score of 70% or higher and successful completion of all steps in the selection process is required to nike essay, be placed on the eligible list. However, eligibility does not guarantee an offer of employment. The online application consists of two (2) parts: Registered Information - personal application information Application Questionnaire - recruitment source information. Sections 1-2 will take you approximately 5 minutes to complete. You must complete BOTH sections before your application can be processed, and must print the Online Application and bring it with you to the written test.
Step 2 - The Personal Qualifications Essay (PQE) The Personal Qualifications Essay (PQE) is administered at the written test site. The PQE requires you to write essays in essay, response to questions regarding demonstration of your personal qualifications for Police Officer. Essays will be evaluated based on your written communication skill and demonstrated effectiveness in judgement and nursing research, decision-making and behavioral flexibility. Candidates are not successful in the PQE for essay on tiranga numerous reasons, including the following: Using poor examples that fail to showcase their abilities and potential Failure to essay your future, provide enough details that would make the essays clear and easier to understand Failure to stay on topic (i.e. rambling, too much detail, or irrelevant information) Failure to provide all information asked for essay in the essay questions (i.e. did not completely answer the nursing critique questions) Lacks adequate written communication skills (i.e. English usage, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc.)
If you feel that you may need improvement in essay on tiranga, your written communication skills, we encourage you to take steps to improve in this area. You may want to consider taking a college course in business English and/or essay writing. Below are some courses offered through the video Los Angeles Community College District that may interest you.* * Course names, numbers, and descriptions from the Los Angeles City College 06-07 Catalog. For more information on essay the Los Angeles Community College District, please call (213) 891-2000 or visit http://www.laccd.edu. Factors Judged During PQE Rating. Written communication skill. Police Officers are required to fill out many different forms, logs, and nike essay, reports. Correspondingly, Police Officers must write legibly and clearly and essay on tiranga, have a good working knowledge of English grammar, sentence structure, vocabulary, and spelling. Of Dorian Gray Critical? Police Officers must be concise, descriptive, and thorough in all written documents. You must read the questions carefully to essay on tiranga, ensure that your answers are appropriate to the questions. Judgement and decision-making.
This has long been part of what a Police Officer does on a daily basis. Police Officers are expected to recognize small problems and solve them before they become big problems. They must note trends and develop preventive solutions to potential long-term problems. Bird By Maya Angelou? Think about problems you have confronted in the past and how you approached them. Why did you do what you did? Would you do it again?
Police Officers must be able to work alone, responsible only for their own actions; with a partner, where responsibility is shared; as a member of a team, capable of following the essay on tiranga orders of others and working cooperatively with other team members; or as a leader, taking control of a situation and nike essay, directing or helping others. Officers must be able to assume these different responsibilities at appropriate times and as circumstances change, often during a single work shift or even during a single event. Plan to talk about your past behavior and how it has prepared you to adapt to this behavioral flexibility. What to think about before taking the PQE. There is no right or wrong answers to the questions.
You will be asked to elicit the information needed to essay on tiranga, evaluate your qualifications for between power and international relations each of the factors discussed above. Each candidate's response will be unique to essay on tiranga, that candidate, based on his or her life experiences. Prior to your PQE you may want to nike essay, spend some time reviewing the many events and incidents that make up your personal history and that have helped make you who you are today. Which of essay, these many experiences have prepared you for the position of Police Officer and the factors on which you will be rated? The passing score for the PQE portion is 70% or higher, and your score is thesis between power politics and international relations, valid for essay 18 months. If you do not pass, you may take the PQE once every three months. Your score determines your rank on the eligible list and what happens next. The City can only consider candidates in order of their score on the picture of dorian gray critical the list. The highest scoring candidates will be scheduled for additional testing.
The lowest scoring candidates will not be considered further. If your score is in the middle, you may be scheduled for some further testing, but there is no guarantee that you will ultimately be successful. The number of candidates needed (and what score is high enough to be called for further processing) depends on essay two major factors -- the number of appointments expected and nursing papers, the number of applicants. Essay? These numbers can change dramatically over time, with new applicants testing every week, making it impossible to exactly predict what will happen to you. Continuing assessment of these external factors is done to determine what scores will be needed to fill expected Academy classes. If you have one of the very highest scores, you can expect to be scheduled to take the Physical Abilities Test (PAT) and to paper, complete the Personal History Statement (PHS). If you have one of the lowest passing scores, you will not hear further from the City, but you may recompete (see below) to try to improve your score. If you are in the middle ranges, you will be notified by mail if further processing is available to candidates with your score. It is your responsibility to make sure your contact information is up to date. Call (213) 473-9060 to be change your address or other contact information. Plain talk about on tiranga this test part:
Read the essay questions and make sure that you answer the questions that are asked. Reread your answers and nursing, look for careless errors. You will be taking this test with paper and pencil. Essay On Tiranga? You won't be able to rely on essay on caged bird by maya angelou spell-check. Essay On Tiranga? It's not enough that you know how to write or have created excellent written papers in the past - you have to demonstrate your skill on the day of the test. When you write your essays, consider a thoughtful answer to the question before you begin writing. Read the question carefully and answer the question as it is asked. Save time to review your essays and correct any careless grammatical or spelling errors you can find. Future? It's not enough to know proper grammar and how to spell - you have to essay on tiranga, demonstrate your knowledge on test day. Don't be overconfident - check your work.
Step 3 - Background Investigation and Polygraph Exam. Prior to nike essay, the Initial Background you will be required to complete Personal History Statement, which requires the compilation of on tiranga, extensive biographical information. On the day of the Initial Background, a background investigator will review the Personal History Statement and interview you about any issues noted. You will also be fingerprinted. If, based on nike essay the information obtained, it appears that you may meet the essay on tiranga City's background standards, a thorough field investigation will be conducted.
The field investigation includes checks of employment, police, financial, education, and military records and nike essay, interviews with family members, neighbors, supervisors, co-workers, and friends. The investigation may take from 60 to 180 days to complete. You will be evaluated on your past behavior and the extent to essay on tiranga, which your behavior demonstrates positive traits that support your candidacy for Police Officer. The findings of the background investigation are valid for 12 months. Plain talk about this test part: Honesty is the best policy. Everyone has done things they're not proud of, but the of dorian gray worst possible action is to try to essay on tiranga, cover it up.
Please take time to carefully evaluate your background and essay about future husband, experiences before you get started. Click here to see what types of things might negatively impact your progress. Check the Background Information Flyer to see the types of things that are not befitting of a Police Officer. Be prepared to address any that may apply to you. Type or print neatly using black ink when filling out on tiranga your Personal History Statement. You must do the research necessary to provide accurate answers in about your future husband, every area. Essay? I do not remember is not an acceptable answer on nike essay your Personal History Statement. On Tiranga? Be well rested and have a good meal before your background interview. Hunger and thirst can distract you. Violent Video Research? Dress comfortably. (Business casual, Military Class C Uniform) Arrive at essay, least 15 minutes prior to your scheduled background interview appointment time.
For parking during regular business hours, there are 10-hour meters in essay your future, the surrounding areas of the building (bring change) and also parking lots within a couple of blocks (Temple Alameda) of the Personnel Building are available for a nominal fee. Please click here for Frequently Asked Questions regarding the background investigation process. The Background Standards for essay on tiranga public safety positions in the City of Los Angeles reflect the very high standards demanded of candidates for public safety job classifications and safety sensitive positions within City service. They are designed to identify the kinds of behaviors which are required of Public Safety Officers serving the citizens of the City of violent research paper, Los Angeles. Each candidate's past choices, judgments, and behaviors will be compared to essay on tiranga, these demanding standards. Research Critique Papers? Candidates who fall short of demonstrating consistently sound decision making, maturity, and on tiranga, responsible past behaviors in each of these areas will not be further considered for employment in these critical positions. Each Standard represents an area that is essential for success in public safety employment. Positions such as Police Officer, Police Specialist, Port Police Officer, Special Officer, and Firefighter, along with other public safety positions designated by the General Manager, are positions of special public trust for which these exacting standards have been designed. The City identifies and selects only those individuals with the highest chance of success in their training and in continuing employment in these critical positions. Candidates are asked to critically assess their own background in light of these Standards before beginning the examination process. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS, SENSITIVITY, AND RESPECT FOR OTHERS.
Public Safety Officers must be able to draw on extraordinary levels of tact and diplomacy to achieve their goals while dealing with the diverse population of the City of the picture gray, Los Angeles. On Tiranga? They must be able to the picture critical essays, use advice, appropriate warnings and persuasion to on tiranga, engender cooperation from the public. Additionally, they must be able to work effectively either as an individual or as a member of a larger team. Essay About Your Future Husband? Each candidate shall demonstrate an understanding of the skills necessary to deal effectively with others in a cooperative and courteous manner. Desired behaviors may include, but are not limited to: Understanding the on tiranga impact of words and behavior on others, and modifying one's own behavior, comments, or course of future husband, action accordingly Concern for the feelings and perspectives of essay, others Demonstration of impartiality in dealing with issues of age, gender, sexual orientation, race or ethnicity, religion, and cultural diversity Use of tact and diplomacy to achieve goals, resolve disputes, and to thesis on relationship power politics relations, diffuse or deescalate conflict Ability to essay on tiranga, work effectively as a member of a team, making appropriate contributions and recognizing the achievements of others. Examples of Potentially Disqualifying Evidence. Incidents of domestic violence; use of verbal or physical abuse or violence toward others indicating a lack of self-control; inability to get along with others in work or personal life; failure to listen effectively; use of derogatory stereotypes in jokes or daily language; making rude and/or condescending remarks to or about bird others; use of physical force to resolve disputes; demonstrated overreaction to criticism; inability to work effectively as a team player; disruptive/challenging to authority; use of harassment, threats, or intimidation to gain an advantage.
DECISION MAKING AND JUDGEMENT. Public Safety Officers must possess extraordinarily good sense and must demonstrate through their past behavior that they can analyze a situation quickly, make sound and responsible decisions, and take appropriate action. Desired behaviors may include, but are not limited to the ability to: Critically analyze options and determine an appropriate course of action in a given situation Act assertively and on tiranga, without hesitation, but without overreacting Make quick, responsible decisions under pressure Persuade others to own point of view or to desired course of action Know when to make an exception; exercise appropriate discretion Prioritize competing demands Simultaneously and appropriately address multiple tasks Make appropriate choices without constant supervision or detailed instructions Creatively develop innovative solutions to problems. Examples of Potentially Disqualifying Evidence. Making poor choices given known circumstances; indecision when options are not clear-cut; failure to take action when appropriate or demonstrating insecurity about making a decision ; behavior indicating poor judgment or failure to consider appropriate options; failure to learn from past mistakes; inability or unwillingness to by maya, modify a position; rigid adherence to rules without consideration of alternative information; failure to see or consider all options; succumbing to essay, peer pressure. Public Safety Officers must present a background which demonstrates maturity and readiness for such employment. Violent Video Games? Their past choices must be free from behavior inappropriate to the position being sought. A significant degree of personal discipline must be displayed to ensure that candidates can consistently refrain from taking actions which may be detrimental to their own health and well-being or the essay health and well-being of others. They must be able to maintain their composure and stay in control during critical situations, maintain a positive attitude, and accept constructive criticism without becoming defensive. Research Papers? Desired behaviors may include, but are not limited to the ability to:
Refraining from essay engaging in bird by maya angelou, conduct which, by its very nature, would reflect poorly on on tiranga the City and limit a Public Safety Officer's ability to do his or her job effectively Adhering to violent video games paper, legal and societal constraints and requirements of conduct Considering the on tiranga consequences prior to on relationship between power politics, taking an essay on tiranga action Accepting responsibility for past actions and mistakes Taking proper precautions and avoid unnecessarily risky behavior Using constructive criticism to improve performance Working well in unstructured situations with minimal supervision. Examples of Potentially Disqualifying Evidence. Use of illegal drugs; abuse of bird, alcohol or prescription medications; failure to follow all laws and common rules of conduct; associating with individuals who break the law; being argumentative, defensive, or blaming others (or circumstances) for mistakes made; past behavior which indicates a tendency to resort to use of force to gain objectives; overbearing in approach to resolving problems; unnecessarily confrontational taking unnecessary personal risks; placing others at risk through one's own actions; reacting childishly or with anger to criticism or disappointment. HONESTY, INTEGRITY AND PERSONAL ETHICS. Public Safety Officers are required to on tiranga, demonstrate the on caged highest possible personal integrity through their honesty and ethical conduct. They must be able to maintain high standards of personal conduct, abide by the law, and demonstrate attributes such as truthfulness and fairness in relationships with others. Each candidate must demonstrate a willingness to work within the system. Examples of behaviors which meet this standard include, but are not limited to: Being truthful in dealings with others Fully cooperating and on tiranga, being completely forthcoming during the pre-employment selection process Admitting and understanding past mistakes Refraining from using employment or a position of authority for personal gain Refraining from bending rules or otherwise trying to beat the system Accepting responsibility for one's own actions. Examples of Potentially Disqualifying Evidence. Makes false and/or misleading statements or intentionally omits relevant information; purposefully withholds information; minimizes past mistakes or errors; blames others/makes excuses for mistakes; attempts to induce others to give false information; bends the rules or uses a position of authority for personal gain; refuses to on caged, accept responsibility for improper actions; condones the unethical behavior of essay on tiranga, others through silence; engages in illegal or immoral activities of bird by maya angelou, such a nature that would be offensive to contemporary community standards of propriety; theft; fraud.
SETTING AND ACHIEVING GOALS. Public Safety Officers are required to demonstrate the ability to essay on tiranga, set and achieve personal and professional goals. Candidates for public safety positions can best position themselves for essay about husband positive consideration through continuing achievement in the workplace, educational environment, volunteer activities and/or community involvement. Each candidate must demonstrate initiative and the ability to follow through on all commitments without constant supervision and detailed instruction. Candidates have the opportunity to on tiranga, demonstrate their ability to nursing critique, set and achieve goals, their ability to essay on tiranga, work in a diligent, reliable, and conscientious manner in accordance with specific rules and policies, and their readiness for, and commitment to, public service through the following: Advancement in husband, the workplace through promotion or increased responsibilities Completing work as required and on schedule Meeting high standards for punctuality and attendance Meeting family obligations Educational achievement Involvement in volunteer or community improvement activities Easily meeting unpredictable or unexpected challenges. Examples of potentially disqualifying evidence.
Failure to essay, meet commitments to work, school, family, volunteer or community activities. Candidates for nike essay public safety positions are held to exacting standards of essay, behavior throughout all aspects of research paper, their lives. Candidates can expect specific inquiry to be made into their past behavior regarding: The exercise of fiscal responsibility and acceptance of responsibility for financial obligations Employing safe driving practices Maintaining stable employment Obeying laws, rules, regulations, and orders Military accomplishments. Examples of potentially disqualifying evidence. Past due accounts, discharged debts, late payments, collection accounts, civil judgments and/or bankruptcy; failure to exercise fiscal responsibility commensurate with income; failure to follow all traffic laws; numerous moving and non-moving violations; at fault traffic accidents; terminations or suspensions from essay work; reprimands or counseling for poor work performance (including Military service); failure to meet obligations (for example, auto insurance, auto registration, selective service registration, IRS requirements, child support obligations, etc.); law enforcement contacts, arrests, and convictions (as appropriate); other than Honorable discharge from the military. It is in every candidate's best interest to be completely forthcoming and truthful during the background investigation process. Many candidates are disqualified during the background portion of the selection process as a result of dishonesty.
These candidates purposely omit information they think will result in their removal from the selection process, when that may not have been the thesis politics and international case. When this information is essay, later discovered during the background investigation, the thesis on relationship between power politics relations candidate is disqualified, but not necessarily for the behavior he or she failed to essay, disclose. Nike Essay? Rather, the candidate is disqualified for what the failure to provide complete, accurate, and honest information reveals about his or her character. The Polygraph Examination is on tiranga, conducted to confirm information obtained during the selection process. Plain talk about this test part: For some, this is the most frightening part of the examination.
Relax, be yourself, and tell the truth. You must have had at least 6 hours of sleep the night before your exam. Eight is better! If it takes you over video games research paper, one hour to drive to essay, Los Angeles, please consider coming into the City the day before your appointment and staying at a local hotel or arriving well ahead of your future husband, your appointment. Essay On Tiranga? You must be well rested for your exam. Have a good meal. Thesis On Relationship Between Politics Relations? Hunger and thirst can distract you. Do not wear a suit, tie, long sleeves, jeans, or high heels. On Tiranga? Dress comfortably. Wear a short-sleeved, polo style shirt/blouse. (Business Casual) For evening appointments, please report to guard.
For daytime appointments, please park in on caged bird by maya angelou, lot on Los Angeles and 2nd street. Do not take polygraph test if you are ill. Remember to relax and essay on tiranga, be honest. Do not take steps to help yourself pass or attempt to beat the polygraph. Essay Bird Angelou? Listen only to the examiner's instructions at the time of your polygraph. Step 4 - The Physical Fitness Qualifier.
Effective October 1, 2017, the Physical Abilities Test 1 has been eliminated and on tiranga, replaced with the thesis between power and international relations PFQ on on tiranga an advisory basis. In order to nursing research papers, better prepare for the exam and the physical demands of the academy, you are required to on tiranga, attend the Candidate Advancement Program (CAP) and complete the Physical Fitness Qualifier (PFQ). Your score on the PFQ is advisory. You must complete the of dorian gray critical PFQ at least once prior to appointment. You are welcome to retake the essay PFQ as many times as you like, and about future, the score is valid for 12 months. If you score less than a 50 on the PFQ, you are strongly encouraged to attend CAP more regularly and retake the PFQ. Being part of CAPs will significantly increase your success in the academy.
CAP will also make transitioning to Academy life much easier. Essay? If you currently live more than 150 miles away from the Los Angeles area, you should contact your mentor to arrange a PFQ while you are in by maya angelou, town completing other test parts. For information regarding CAP and the PFQ, click here. For a demonstration of the essay PFQ, click here. The ACADEMY PHYSICAL TRAINING PROGRAM is intense and demanding, and your, the first physical fitness test occurs during the first week of the Academy. Therefore it is critical that candidates don't wait until they are in the Academy to get into good physical shape.
It is recommended to begin a physical conditioning program as soon as you apply. For Physical Preparation Tips to help candidates who want to on tiranga, work out on their own, click here. Essay About Your? To help you track your fitness click here to essay on tiranga, download the Fitness Log. The PFQ consists of four events: 1) maximum sit-ups in on minute, 2) 300-meter sprint, 3) maximum push-ups in one minute, and 4) 1.5 mile-run. Violent Video? This is the same physical fitness test that academy recruits take the on tiranga third day of the police academy. This test measures aerobic capacity. The treadmill is programmed to SIMULATE running 1.5 miles in 14 minutes on a track. During the test, the speed and incline of the machine will vary and, as a result, the actual test time is 10 minutes and 20 seconds. The pass/fail score for this test is based upon your completion of this test for the specified period; it will usually be administered after the Medical Evaluation. A panel interview will be conducted to assess your personal accomplishment, job motivation, continuous learning orientation, instrumentality, interpersonal skills, and of dorian gray essays, oral communication skills. Only those candidates who are selected during this part of the process will receive a Conditional Job Offer.
If you fail, you may retake the on tiranga interview after 3 months. If you subsequently attend an Orientation/Oral Prep Seminar, you will not be required to wait 3 months for another interview. Oral Prep is 2nd Thursdays from 6-7:30 PM. Personnel Department Building. 700 E. Temple St., Los Angeles, CA 90012. Step 6 - Medical Evaluation and Psychological Evaluation. The medical examination is thorough and it is nike essay, essential that you be in excellent physical, emotional, and mental health with no conditions that restrict the ability to safely perform the essential functions of the police officer job. Good physical condition is necessary, as training in the Academy is rigorous. Failure to be in excellent physical condition may delay or disrupt training and essay, result in a dismissal from the nike essay Academy. Medical examination results are valid for up to 12 months, at the discretion of the City's medical staff. Written psychological tests (valid for up to 18 months) and the second portion of the PAT will be administered at this time.
Each candidate will have their percent of body fat determined during the medical evaluation process. A candidate must not exceed the current body fat percentage standard. The current standard is: Female 30% and Male 22%. Vision must be at least 20/30 in each eye with the following exceptions. On Tiranga? If glasses are worn, vision must be at least 20/30 in each eye while wearing the glasses and uncorrected distance vision must not exceed 20/70 in essay on caged, either eye and the better eye must be at essay on tiranga, least 20/40. If soft contact lenses are worn, they must have been worn for at least three months and vision must be at least 20/30 in each eye tested with the research contacts in. If a LASIK procedure (refractive surgery) was performed, vision must be at least 20/30 in each eye. In addition, candidates must be able to essay, accurately and quickly name colors, and on caged, must be free from other visual impairments that would restrict the ability to perform law enforcement duties. Candidates must be able to understand speech in noisy areas, understand whispered speech, and on tiranga, localize sounds. Specialized testing methods are used to determine hearing capability. Essay By Maya? Although hearing aid use is not automatically disqualifying, additional specialized tests will be administered to determine if the use of hearing aids will be permitted.
The Psychological Evaluation consists of an individual oral interview and evaluation by a City psychologist on factors related to successful performance in the difficult and stressful job of Police Officer. Essay On Tiranga? The information evaluated includes the written psychological tests completed during the medical evaluation along with information obtained in critical essays, the background investigation process. Psychological Factors of Concern. Candidates with a history or prior diagnosis of essay, a psychological or psychiatric condition, including learning disabilities or Attention Deficit Disorder, or who have been treated with psychotropic medication or therapy, will be asked to provide relevant medical records before a final psychological determination can be made. Certain conditions that have been suspected or diagnosed such as most learning disabilities or Attention Deficit Disorder, with or without hyperactivity, may require additional testing and review of relevant medical records. In some cases, these conditions/diagnoses are accompanied by about your husband functional limitations that might necessitate a psychological disqualification. Conditions such as bipolar disorder, recurring major depression, with or without psychotic features or suicidal ideation, recurring anxiety disorders, with or without panic attacks, obsessive/compulsive disorder, and most diagnoses leading to essay on tiranga, a psychiatric hospitalization require review of relevant medical records. Essay About Your Future Husband? These conditions are frequently accompanied by functional limitations that are difficult to manage, and as a result, tend to result in a psychological disqualification. . Be assured, each candidate receives an individualized assessment of his or her unique circumstances, and on tiranga, no condition or diagnosis is automatically disqualifying. Plain talk about this test part: If you know you had prior treatment or a major injury, go to your doctor in essay on caged bird, advance and on tiranga, bring your records with you to of dorian, the examination. Step 7 - Certification and Appointment.
Certification and essay, Appointment are the final steps in nike essay, the selection process. To be considered, you must have successfully completed all steps in the process. Certification of a candidate's name to the Police Department does not guarantee appointment to the Police Academy. More names are provided to essay, the Police Department than there are vacancies so that the Department can select those best qualified for appointment based on results of the interview and test process. Video Games Paper? Appointments to the Police Academy are made by the Police Department from the civil service eligibility list.
In accordance with City Policies, a pre-employment substance screening for drugs and alcohol may be required prior to on tiranga, appointment because this classification has been designated as Safety Sensitive.
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a book review essay Book Review Sample Essay. 21 September 2006. Book Review for essay on tiranga Wuthering High. Having to go to a boarding school and wear a uniform would be traumatic for most teenagers. Power! Add a ban on cell phones and music, and it is essay like the world is ending.
Oddly enough, for Miranda Tate, these things become the least of her worries in the 257 page, young adult fiction novel Wuthering High. This novel was written by Cara Lockwood and published by MTV Books. Wuthering High is a modern novel that will be examined using a summary of its mystical plot , an violent video games paper analysis of the dynamic character Miranda, and a discussion of the book#8217;s theme about punishments . Essay! The summary of nike essay, this book#8217;s plot combines the completely modern with mystical elements that make it truly entertaining. The story opens with Miranda trying to downplay the essay major discretions, including totaling her dad#8217;s new BMW convertible, that cause her parents to send her to Bard Academy, a boarding school for juvenile delinquents. For a teenage girl who calls Chicago home, Bard Academy#8217;s location on an island off the nursing papers coast of Maine seems like halfway across the world. As soon as Miranda arrives on essay, the island, she knows something just isn#8217;t right about the school. Essay Bird By Maya! The bus driver drives like a maniac and essay on tiranga, asks her if she has any drugs. The athletic coach drinks out of a flask. There are even security personnel called #8220;Guardians#8221; who are allowed to get physical with students.
Things get even stranger when Miranda learns that there was a student that disappeared from Bard several years before, and Miranda becomes positive that this girl#8217;s ghost is haunting her. Over the research critique papers course of the on tiranga story, Miranda discovers that there are characters from classic novels, including Heathcliff from the novel Wuthering Heights , running loose around the school. The plot comes to its climax when Miranda and her friends uncover the secret of the school. The staff members are all ghosts that died before their time on earth was supposed to be finished. For that, they have been sentenced to serve at Bard for an indeterminate amount of thesis politics and international relations, time. The majority of the staff is composed of dead authors, and, unfortunately, one of the dead authors is Emily Bront, who has decided to free fictional characters into the real world, which could cause both the fictional world and the real world to collapse. If that weren#8217;t enough, Miranda also learns that she is the essay descendant of Kate Shaw, an escaped character from Wuthering Heights . Emily is stopped when she enters Wuthering Heights and the book is burned.
The main character in the book, Miranda, proves herself to be very dynamic . One of the most obvious changes in her is that her perspective on nike essay, school, and Bard in particular, has shifted dramatically. At the beginning of the book, Miranda readily admits that she isn#8217;t very focused on essay, school and claims that life is about balance, so she is justified in focusing more on clothes and friends to the point that her grades slip. She is completely distraught when she learns that she has to go without her cell phone and her hair dryer; she even tries to run away from the on caged school. By the on tiranga end of the story, her perspective has completely changed. She is much happier with attending Bard and realizes that the absence of distractions truly does help her focus on studying.
Instead of considering what to wear to between, the next party, she is thinking about scholarships and getting into a good college. On a deeper level, Miranda is dynamic because she has become more self-aware. She is unable to essay, make the connection between the lack of attention from her parents, who are too concerned with Botox injections and a mid-life crisis, and her desire to act out and get herself in gray critical essays trouble. At Bard, Miranda has to attend counseling sessions. During her first session, Ms. On Tiranga! W, her dorm mother, teacher, and counselor, asks Miranda about her family. Because her parents are so focused on themselves, Miranda is the the picture gray critical one that generally takes care of on tiranga, herself and her little sister.
Ms. W points out the fact that Miranda#8217;s tendency to get in trouble may be her way of trying to prove to her parents that she is essay bird by maya still a kid. Due to this realization, Miranda begins to accept her parents for who they are and essay on tiranga, accept the fact that it really isn#8217;t her fault that they act the way they do. Although it is not directly stated, it appears that by the end of the novel, Miranda#8217;s impulse to on relationship power politics relations, act out has lessened from what it was at essay on tiranga, the beginning of the nike essay story. Essay! Although there are many themes that can be drawn from Wuthering High , one of the primary themes is essay on caged bird that punishments can turn into positive experiences if they are approached with an open mind. Miranda may not have started out her experience at Bard with an open mind, but with the help of her new friends and her teachers, she discovers a range of positives about attending a school for delinquents that is run by ghosts. Even though Miranda loves her best friends from essay, home, Liz and Cass, she accepts the fact that it is probably good that she can#8217;t spend a lot of essay on caged, time with them anymore because they are a bad influence and on tiranga, increase her chances of getting in trouble.
Also, as was previously mentioned, Miranda realizes that being removed from the distractions of home, including her cell phone and parties, allows her to concentrate on schoolwork and that she doesn#8217;t really mind doing her schoolwork. She seems to have better direction in her life and nike essay, she has goals beyond dressing well and having a boyfriend. Essay On Tiranga! Even her choice in boyfriends improves during her time at Bard. Prior to being sent there, she briefly dated a guy that had a bad reputation; on a date, he spiked her drink with alcohol. At Bard, she becomes closer to a guy that she knew from nursing critique papers, her old school, and he genuinely cares about her.
Instead of having a date that involves alcohol, they end up having a date where they enjoy eating Pop-Tarts, which are contraband at Bard. All in all, Miranda discovers that her punishment isn#8217;t really that bad after all, and she seems to be happy that she was sent away to Bard. In brief, the book Wuthering High is a story that has a mystical plot , a dynamic character Miranda, and a theme about essay on tiranga punishments . For a world where everyone seems to be concerned with who has the biggest and the best of everything, this story demonstrates that sometimes, less really is more. Cell phones do not have to thesis politics and international, become an extension of essay on tiranga, one#8217;s arm. Computers may be helpful, but sometimes a pen and paper can work just as well.
All in all, people need to learn to place less value on material things and place more value on the things that are priceless: friends, family, and a good education.
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Essay on tiranga
causes of wwi essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Essay On Tiranga. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.
Twenty-eight of the picture gray critical essays these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by essay, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in of dorian gray essays the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on essay on tiranga 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Paper. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on essay the side of France and Russia the same evening. Nike Essay. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and essay, debated.
Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of of dorian gray essays war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the essay on tiranga fateful decisions for nike essay war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of essay on tiranga war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to essays recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only essay on tiranga, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and gray critical essays, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for essay on tiranga the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to nursing be weakened and humiliated. On Tiranga. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. The Picture Critical. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of on tiranga dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Games Research. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. On Tiranga. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon games, events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. Essay. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in bird by maya August 1916, encouraged by essay on tiranga, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and video, decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to essay keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Nursing Papers. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.
Concern for the defence of on tiranga India helped bring the on caged bird British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in essay that of of dorian essays Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the essay Western Front in violent France and Belgium the on tiranga French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the on relationship between politics left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and essay on tiranga, order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the nike essay Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench.
Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by essay on tiranga, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. Research Critique Papers. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and on tiranga, their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the gray essays Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and essay, more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in video games paper the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in on tiranga Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of nike essay achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the on tiranga rest of thesis on relationship between power relations 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Essay. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on nursing the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in essay on tiranga the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. Of Dorian Essays. The British 5th Army on on tiranga the Somme suffered a major defeat. Games. But the British line held in front of essay Amiens and later to the north in on caged by maya angelou front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Essay. The German offensive broke the nursing research papers trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the essay on tiranga Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of nike essay Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on essay the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. On Relationship Between Power Politics. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).
These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. Essay. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. Essay Future. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.
They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Essay. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on violent video games Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to essay the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and nursing critique, desperate for peace.
This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of essay on tiranga 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by about, the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of essay on tiranga Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is about future, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. On Tiranga. The unhesitating Russian willingness to essay on caged by maya angelou aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in essay the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the video research highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. On Tiranga. Here the nursing research war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against essay on tiranga, climate, terrain, and disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in your future April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of essay British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in on caged bird angelou September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on essay on tiranga 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to critical tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and essay on tiranga, south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by husband, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Essay On Tiranga. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the about your future Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to essay the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of about future Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of on tiranga international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for essay your husband the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.
It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the essay war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Violent Games. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.
Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and essay, France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Essays. In 1914 the on tiranga Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.
To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the thesis on relationship power and international relations German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to on tiranga its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of on caged bird total annihilation. His bloody attempt to essay on tiranga win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. Games. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and on tiranga, Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by of dorian critical essays, the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out essay one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the gray slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. Essay On Tiranga. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the research paper German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to essay defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.
The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the violent video Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in on tiranga John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.
It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the papers movement of German troops quickly from essay on tiranga front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the relations commander-in-chief of the essay British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to gray critical essays forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of on tiranga centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Essay Husband. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and essay, inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on research critique German military and economic strength, but the on tiranga Germans found it difficult to essays turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to on tiranga German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on thesis on relationship between and international relations winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. On Tiranga. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Bird Angelou. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated.
They might even have chosen to do this. They had in essay the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in of dorian gray favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and essay, much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into thesis on relationship power and international relations, the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to essay on tiranga fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by nike essay, the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the on tiranga Germans.
This was followed by video, the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to essay 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to future prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.
The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Essay. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Nursing Research Critique Papers. Military operations would be confined to essay on tiranga the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to essay by maya help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the essay on tiranga German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the nike essay war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to essay on tiranga recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to essay on caged by maya angelou raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Essay On Tiranga. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the essay on caged by maya field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Essay. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the essay by maya French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.
And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to on tiranga take the your future husband field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to on tiranga the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Thesis On Relationship Between Power. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by on tiranga, the need to essay on caged bird by maya keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and essay on tiranga, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on violent video research paper the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at essay, Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to bird by maya angelou divide the Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. On Tiranga. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on on caged bird angelou the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of essay their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of essay future economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the on tiranga numbers needed to the picture gray work on the land and provided a surplus of essay on tiranga males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Video Games. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers.
These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Essay On Tiranga. The consequences of it were not. Research Paper. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of on tiranga iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Critique. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Essay On Tiranga. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to about husband destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the essay on tiranga war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to the picture gray essays protect.
Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by essay on tiranga, an enemy obstruction. Essay About Your Future. As a result the coordination of infantry and on tiranga, artillery was very difficult and nike essay, often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. On Tiranga. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Research Papers. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on on tiranga enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in video research virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Essay On Tiranga. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and essay on caged by maya, reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to essay on tiranga kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Violent Games Research Paper. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the essay Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.
From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and nike essay, bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.
In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and essay on tiranga, bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against essay your future husband, poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and essay, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into critique papers, the German front-line trenches.
The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for essay on tiranga enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the thesis between relations autumn of on tiranga 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in nike essay depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to essay make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.
The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to the picture of dorian critical disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and essay, destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the essay bird by maya angelou Germans to essay on tiranga survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. The Picture Of Dorian Gray Critical. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in essay 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of on relationship between politics and international soldiers alone. On Tiranga. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in video research turn, depended on the effectiveness of on tiranga their political institutions and thesis on relationship between politics, the quality of essay on tiranga their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of of dorian France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the on tiranga demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for thesis power politics and international relations the factories. Balancing the essay on tiranga competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to nike essay those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Essay On Tiranga. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of about your Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Essay. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for nike essay half an hour's bombardment. In the essay on tiranga autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of essay your future husband 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in essay many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only essay your, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of on tiranga old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the by maya angelou Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. On Tiranga. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to on relationship power relations maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and essay on tiranga, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to nursing critique papers the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Essay On Tiranga. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the on caged by maya angelou working class of Europe paid a high price on essay on tiranga the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway.
The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the games Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of essay Allied reparations and by nursing papers, inflation. France recovered the provinces of essay Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Of Dorian Essays. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the essay security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of critical British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to essay on tiranga accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for on relationship power politics twenty-five years.'
The cost of all this in essay on tiranga human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Research Critique Papers. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of essay on tiranga Modern War . Ed.
Charles Townshend. Nursing. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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